The Determinants of Technical Change in the Chemical Industry: Demand-Pull or Technology-Push?

  • C. Freeman
  • V. Walsh
  • J. Townsend


For many years now controversy has continued over the determinants of the direction and scale of inventive and scientific activity in contemporary industrialised societies. Participants in the debate have included economists, sociologists and scientific administrators as well as engineers, inventors and scientists. A related but more specialised controversy has raged among historians of science, between ‘internalists’ and ‘externalists’.


Large Firm Market Structure Scientific Paper Inventive Activity Capital Good 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beer, J. J. (1959) Emergence of the German Dyestuffs Industry (Illinois University Press).Google Scholar
  2. Byatt, L. and Cohen, A. (1969) An Attempt to Quantify the Benefits of Scientific Research, DES, London, Science Policy Studies, no. 4.Google Scholar
  3. Clark, J., Freeman, C. and Soete, L. (1981) ‘Long Waves, Inventions, and Innovations’, Futures, vol. 13, no. 4, August, pp. 308–322.Google Scholar
  4. Freeman, C. (1974) Economics of Industrial Innovation ( London: Penguin).Google Scholar
  5. Haber, L.F. (1958) The Chemical Industry during the Nineteenth Century ( Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  6. Haber, L.F. (1971) The Chemical Industry 1900–1930 ( Oxford: Oxford University Press ).Google Scholar
  7. Hamberg, D. (1964), ‘Size of Firm, Oligopoly and Research: The Evidence’, Canadian Journal of Economic and Political Science, February, pp. 62–75.Google Scholar
  8. Hessen, B. (1931) ‘The Social and Economic Roots of Newton’s “Principia” ’, in Science at the Crossroads, papers from the second international Congress of the History of Science and Technology (1931), re-printed and published by Cass, London, 1971.Google Scholar
  9. Langrish, J. et. al. (1972) Wealth from Knowledge ( London: Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liebermann, M.B. (1978) ‘A Literature Citation Study of Science — Technology Coupling in Electronics’, Proceedings of the I.E.E.E., vol. 66, no. 1, January, pp. 5–13.Google Scholar
  11. Mowery, D. and Rosenberg, N. (1979) ‘The Influence of Market Demand upon Innovation: A Critical Review of Some Recent Empirical Studies’, Research Policy, vol. 8, no. 2, April, pp. 102–154.Google Scholar
  12. Myers, S. and Marquis, D.G. (1969) Successful Industrial Innovations NSF (Washington).Google Scholar
  13. National Science Foundation, Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (1969) Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science (TRACES), NSF 0535 (Washington).Google Scholar
  14. Nelson, R.R. and Winter, S.G. (1973) ‘Neo-classical Versus Evolutionary Theories of Economic Growth’, Yale Growth Center, (mimeo).Google Scholar
  15. Nelson, R.R. and Winter, S.G. (1978) ‘Factors Generating and Limiting Competition under Schumpeterian Conditions’, Bell Journal of Economics, vol. 9, no 2.Google Scholar
  16. Phillips, A. (1971) Technology and Market Structure . (London:Lexington Books).Google Scholar
  17. Price, D.J. de Solla (1965) ‘Is Technology Historically Independent of Science?’, Technology and Culture, no. 4.Google Scholar
  18. Reekie, W.D. (1969) ‘Barriers to Entry and Competition’ in (ed.) G. Teeling Smith, Economics and Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry ( London: Office of Health Economics).Google Scholar
  19. Rosenberg, N. (1976) Perspectives on Technology ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Scherer, F.M. (1965a) ‘Firm Size, Market Structure, Opportunity and the Output of Patented Inventions’, American Economic Review, pp. 1097–1123.Google Scholar
  21. Scherer, F.M. (1965b) ‘Size of Firm, Oligopoly and Research: A Comment’, Canadian Journal of Economic and Political Science, May, pp. 256–266.Google Scholar
  22. Schmookler, J. (1966) Invention and Economic Growth (Harvard).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schumpeter, J.A. (1911) The Theory of Economic Development (Harvard).Google Scholar
  24. Schumpeter, J.A. (1928) ‘The Instability of Capitalism’, Economic Journal, pp. 361–386.Google Scholar
  25. Schumpeter, J.A. (1942) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy ( New York: Harper and Row).Google Scholar
  26. Seal, V. (1975) The Relationships and Links between Academic Research in Steroid Chemistry and the Industrial Development of Steroid Drugs. PhD Thesis, Manchester University.Google Scholar
  27. Sherwin, C.W. and Isenson, R.S. (1967) ‘Project Hindsight’, Science, vol. 156, 23 June, pp. 1571–1577.Google Scholar
  28. Soete, L. (1979) ‘Size of Firm and Inventive Activity: The Evidence Reconsidered’, European Economic Review.Google Scholar
  29. Townsend, J. (1976) Innovation in Coalmining Machinery: The Anderton Shearer-Loader SPRU Occasional Paper, no.3, Sussex.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Wiener Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsvergleiche (WIIW) (The Vienna Institute for Comparative Economic Studies) 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Freeman
  • V. Walsh
  • J. Townsend

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations