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Take-off and Breakdown: Vicissitudes of the Developing Countries

  • R. De Oliveira Campos

Abstract

Economic science with all its severity of mien, is particularly vulnerable to the shifting winds of fashion: economic jargon, to begin with. In the aftermath of the Second World War, when interest was rekindled in international cooperation for economic development, the non-industrialised countries were labelled ‘poor countries’, reflecting a static, almost fatalistic vision of underdevelopment. Subsequently, as we moved on to an era of ‘dynamic pessimism’, the epithet was changed to ‘backward countries’ (which at least implied the possibility of rebound and advancement), and later to ‘underdeveloped and less developed countries’. More recently we have reached a phase of dynamic optimism, where the expression in vogue is ‘developing countries’. As social dynamics has also swept into fashion, we now talk about expectant countries, stirred by the revolution of rising expectations.

Keywords

Political Participation Political Instability Political Stability Modernisation Process Economic Motivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    A. Hirschman, Journeys Toward Progress (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1963) P. 237.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies (Yale University Press, 1968) p. 54.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robert T. Daland, Brazilian Planning (University of North Carolina Press, 1967) P. 143.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Samuel P. Huntington, op. cit., p. 53. Huntington’s book inspired a considerable part of the political analysis in this article.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huntington, op. cit., pp. 34–5.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Karl Deutsch, ‘Social Mobilization and Political Development’, American Political Science Review (September 1961) p. 494.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huntington, op. cit., p. 34.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huntington, op. cit., pp. 58–9.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    For an elaborate definition of ‘systemic frustration’, see Ivo K. Feierabend, Rosalind L. Feierabend and Betty A. Nesvold, ‘Social change and political violence: cross national patterns’, in Jason L. Finkle and Richard W. Gable (eds), Political Development and Social Change, 2nd edn (New York and London: John Wiley, 1971) p. 571.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huntington, op. cit., p. 336.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    See Ivo Feierabend, et al., op. cit., p. 579: ‘Highly modem and truly traditional nations should experience less systemic frustration — in the modern nations, because of their ability to provide a high level of attainment commensurate with modern aspirations; in the traditional nations, unexposed to aspirations, because modern aspirations are still lacking’.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    See Ivo Feierabend et al., op. cit., Table 3, p. 586.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alexis de Tocqueville, L’Ancien Régime, trans. M. W. Patterson (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1947) p. 186.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Charles P. Kindleberger and Guido di Tella 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. De Oliveira Campos

There are no affiliations available

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