Short-term and long-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in retinal and mesolimbic dopamine-containing neuron

  • P Michael Iuvone
  • Albert L Rauch

Abstract

Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosynthesis (Levitt et al., 1965), has been shown to be regulated by changes in the specific activity of the enzyme molecules (enzyme activation) and by changes in the rate of TH biosynthesis (enzyme induction). Both activation and induction of TH have been observed in adrenal medulla and in central nervous system (CNS) norepinephrine-containing neurons (Mueller et al., 1969; Joh et al., 1973; Chuang and Costa, 1974; Reis et al., 1975; Roth et al., 1975; Lewander et al., 1977; Masserano and Weiner, 1979). In dopamine (DA)-containing neurons of brain, activation of TH has been observed following short-term increases in neuronal activity produced by either acute administration of antipsychotic drugs or direct electrical stimulation (Zivkovic et al., 1975; Murrin et al., 1976). This paper describes studies concerning the regulation of TH in DA-containing neurons in the CNS. The specific question was to determine if the increases in TH activity after both long-term and short-term increases in neuronal activity occur by the same mechanism.

Keywords

Dopamine Tyrosine Schizophrenia Retina Catecholamine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Argioles, A., Fadda, F., Melis, M.R., Serra, G. and Gessa, G.L. (1979). Brain Res., 175, 178–182.Google Scholar
  2. Beart, P.M. and Gundlach, A.L. (1980). Brit. J. Pharmacol., 69, 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chuang, D.M. and Costa, E. (1974). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 71, 4570–4574.Google Scholar
  4. DaPrada, M., Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol., 16, 311–319.Google Scholar
  5. Haggendal, J. and Malmfors, T. (1965). Acta Physiol. Scand., 64, 58–66.Google Scholar
  6. Iuvone, P.M. (1981). In preparation.Google Scholar
  7. Iuvone, P.M. and Neff, N.H. (1979). In Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers, (eds. E. Usdin, I.J. Kopin, and J. Barchas), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 121–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Iuvone, P.M. and Neff, N.H. (1980). Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem., 11, 140.Google Scholar
  9. Iuvone, P.M. and Neff, N.H. (1981). In Essays in Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology, Vol. 5, (eds. M.B.H. Youdim, W. Lovenberg, D.F. Sharman, and J.F. Lagnado), Wiley, New York and Chicester, in press.Google Scholar
  10. Iuvone, P.M., Galli, C.L., Garrison-Gund, C.K., and Neff, N.H. (1978a). Science, 202, 901–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Iuvone, P.M., Galli, C.L., and Neff, N.H. (1978b). Mol. Pharmacol., 14, 1212–1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Iuvone, P.M., Joh, T.H. and Neff, N.H. (1979). Brain Res., 178, 191–195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Iuvone, P.M., Marshburn, P.B., Rauch, A.L., and Neff, N.H. (1981). In preparation.Google Scholar
  14. Joh, T.H., Geghman, C., and Reis, D. (1973). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 70, 2767–2771.Google Scholar
  15. Joh, T.H., Park, D.H., Reis, D.J. (1978). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 75, 4744–4748.Google Scholar
  16. Lewander, T., Joh, T.H. and Reis, D.J. (1977). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 200, 523–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Levitt, M., Spector, S., Sjoerdsma, A. and Udenfriend, S. (1965). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 148, 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lindvall, O. and Bjorklund, A. (1974). Acta Physiol. Scand., Suppl. 412, 1–48.Google Scholar
  19. Masserano, J.M. and Weiner, N. (1979). Mol. Pharmacol., 16, 513–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Meuller, R.A., Thoenen, H. and Axelrod, J. (1969). Mol. Pharmacol., 5, 463–469.Google Scholar
  21. Murrin, L.C., Morgenroth, V.H., III, and Roth, R.H. (1976). Mol. Pharmacol., 12, 1070–1081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Raese, J.D., Edelman, A.M., Lazar, M.A., and Barchas, J.D. (1977). In Structure and Function of Monoamine Enzymes, (E. Usdin, N. Weiner, M.B.H. Youdim), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 383–400.Google Scholar
  23. Rauch, A.L. and Iuvone, P.M. (1981). In preparation.Google Scholar
  24. Reis, D.J., Joh, T.H. and Ross, R.A. (1975). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 193, 775–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Roth, R.H., Morgenroth, V.H., III and Salzman, P.M. (1975). Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol., 289, 327–343.Google Scholar
  26. Scatton, B. (1977). Eur. J. Pharmacol., 46, 363–369.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Scatton, B. (1980). Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol., 24, 31–36.Google Scholar
  28. Zivkovic, B., Guidotti, A., Revuelta, A. and Costa, E. (1975). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 194, 37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Contributors 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • P Michael Iuvone
    • 1
  • Albert L Rauch
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Pharmacology and OphthalmologyEmory University AtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations