X-ray diffraction and electron microscope studies of the molecular structure of biological membranes

  • Lee Makowski
  • Jade Li
Part of the Topics in Molecular and Structural Biology book series (TMSB)


Biological membranes are thin, sheet-like structures composed of a well-defined but usually heterogeneous mixture of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Studies aimed at understanding the structural basis of membrane function focus on obtaining images of each membrane component at the highest possible resolution and on determining the spatial relationships among the components in the intact membrane. Detailed structural studies usually require chemically homogeneous specimens which exhibit a high degree of spatial order. For this reason, most membranes in their native state are not satisfactory subjects for high resolution structural studies.


Lipid Bilayer Polar Head Group Electron Density Profile Purple Membrane Membrane Plane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Contributors 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee Makowski
    • 1
  • Jade Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryCollege of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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