Advertisement

Phasic gating of cutaneous reflexes during locomotion

  • Hans Forssberg

Abstract

In the course of a movement, mechanical conditions vary, and a reflex response that is effective in one phase of the movement might be ineffective or even disruptive in another phase of the movement. Reflex responses studied in active states, during ongoing movements, have been found to be influenced by the course of the movement. The phasic modulation of skin reflexes during locomotion is perhaps the best studied example. These reflexes have been elicited from the dorsum of the paw and recorded in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hindlimbs (Forssberg et al., 1975, 1977; Prochazka et al, 1978; Forssberg, 1979a,b; Wand et al., 1980; Duysens and Loeb, 1980) or in the forelimbs (Miller et al., 1977). Stimulation of other parts of the limb has also elicited phase-dependent reflexes (Duysens and Pearson, 1976; Duysens and Stein, 1978). The phasic modulation of reflexes has also been found in other motor behaviours such as swimming (Grillner et al., 1977) and respiration (Lipski et al., 1977; Berger and Mitchell, 1976).

Keywords

Reflex Response Swing Phase Step Cycle Lateral Gastrocnemius Reflex Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amassian, V. E., Weiner, H. and Rosenblum, M. (1972). Neural systems subserving the tactile placing reaction: A model for the study of higher level control of movement, Brain Res., 40, 171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson, O., Forssberg, H., Grillner, S. and Lindquist, M. (1978). Phasic gain control of the transmission in cutaneous reflex pathways to motoneurones during ‘fictive’ locomotion, Brain Res., 149, 503–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, O., Forssberg, H. and Lindquist, M. (1977). The neural mechanism of the phase dependent reflex reversal. Abstract of Satellite Symposium on Neuro-physiological Mechanisms of Locomotion. XXVII Int. Congr. Physiol. Sciences, Paris, p. 11Google Scholar
  4. Berger, A. J. and Mitchell, R. A. (1976). Lateralized phrenic nerve responses to stimulating respiratory afferents in the cat, Amer. J. Physiol., 230, 1314–1320Google Scholar
  5. Burke, R. E., Jankowska, E. and Ten Bruggencate, G. (1970). A comparison of peripheral and rubrospinal synaptic input to slow and fast twitch motor units, J. Physiol., Lond., 207, 709–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duysens, J. and Loeb, G. E. (1980). Modulation of ipsi- and contra-lateral reflex responses in unrestrained walking cats, J. Neurophysiol., to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  7. Duysens, J. and Pearson, K. G. (1976). The role of cutaneous afferents from the distal hindlimb in the regulation of the stepcycle in thalamic cats, Expl Brain Res., 24, 245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duysens, J. and Stein, R. B. (1978). Reflexes induced by nerve stimulation in walking cats with implanted cuff electrodes, Expl Brain Res., 32, 213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edgerton, V. R., Grillner, S., Sjöström, A. and Zangger, P. (1976). Central generation of locomotion in vertebrates. In Neural Control of Locomotion (eds. R. Herman, S. Grillner, P. Stein and D. G. Stuart), New York, Plenum Press, 439–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Forssberg, H. (1979a). Stumbling corrective reaction: A phase dependent compensatory reaction during locomotion, J. Neurophysiol., 42, 936–953Google Scholar
  11. Forssberg, H. (1979b). On integrative motor functions in the cat’s spinal cord, Acta physiol. scand., supplement 474Google Scholar
  12. Forssberg, H., Grillner, S. and Rossignol, S. (1975). Phase dependent reflex reversal during walking in chronic spinal cats, Brain Res., 85, 103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Forssberg, H., Grillner, S. and Rossignol, S. (1977). Phasic gain control of reflexes from the dorsum of the paw during spinal locomotion, Brain Res., 132, 121–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Forssberg, H., Grillner, S. and Sjöström, A. (1974). Tactile placing reactions in chronic spinal kittens, Acta physiol. scand., 92, 114–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grillner, S., Rossignol, S. and Wallén, P. (1977). The adaptation of a reflex to the ongoing phase of locomotion in fish, Expl Brain Res., 30, 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grillner, S. and Zangger, P. (1974). Locomotor movements generated by the deafferented spinal cord, Acta physiol. scand., 91, 38A–39AGoogle Scholar
  17. Hagbarth, K.-E. (1952). Excitatory and inhibitory skin areas for flexor and extensor motoneurones, Acta physiol. scand., 26, supplement 94Google Scholar
  18. Lipski, J., McAllen, R. M. and Spyer, K. M. (1977). The carotid chemoreceptor input to the respiratory neurones of the nucleus of tractus solitarius, J. Physiol., 269, 797–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lundberg, A. (1973). The significance of segmental spinal mechanisms in motor control, Proc. Symp. Papers 4th Int. Biophysics Congr., MoscowGoogle Scholar
  20. Miller, S., Ruit, J. B. and Van der Meché, F. G. A. (1977). Reversal of sign of long spinal reflexes dependent on the phase of the step cycle in the high decerebrate cat, Brain Res., 128, 447–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Prochazka, A., Sontag, K. H. and Wand, P. (1978). Motor reactions to perturbations of gait: proprioceptive and somesthetic involvement, Neurosci. Lett., 7, 35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schomburg, E. D. and Behrends, H. B. (1978a). The possibility of phase-dependent monosynaptic and polysynaptic Ia excitations to homonymous motoneurones during fictive locomotion, Brain Res., 143, 533–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schomburg, E. D. and Behrends, H. B. (1978b). Phasic control of the transmission in the excitatory and inhibitory reflex pathways from cutaneous afferents to α-motoneurones during fictive locomotion in cats, Neurosci. Lett., 8, 277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sherrington, C. S. (1910). Flexion-reflex of the limb, crossed extension-reflex and reflex stepping and standing, J. Physiol., Lond., 40, 28–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sherrington, C. S. and Sowton, S. C. M. (1911a). Chloroform and reversal of reflex effect, J. Physiol., Lond., 42, 383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sherrington, C. S. and Sowton, S. C. M. (1911b). Reversal of the reflex effects of an afferent nerve by altering the character of the electrical stimulus applied, Proc. R. Soc. B, 83, 435–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wand, P., Prochazka, A. and Sontag, K. H. (1980). Neuromuscular responses to gait perturbations in freely moving cats, Expl. Brain Res., 38, 109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The contributors 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Forssberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology IIIKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations