Unemployment pp 88-111 | Cite as

The International Element in the Phillips Curve

  • Martin Paldam


A set of internal two-equation price-wage models is formulated for 17 countries. It is then demonstrated that the interconnection is much stronger than can be explained by: (i) imported inflation through import prices including exchange rate changes; (ii) the common element in total demand generated by exports; and (iii) the necessity for competitiveness as formulated in the EFO model. The unweighted average of wage increases in the countries considered is called the ż-variable and is used as a proxy for the unexplained international element. It is demonstrated that the coefficient of ż is remarkably stable over time, across countries and for different estimation techniques. It also appears to be largely unrelated to the trade shares of the countries. Only half of the ż-element is due to common long-term trends. It is often argued that the wage-push elements, i.e. those uncorrelated with labor scarcity, are generated by expectations. We thus conclude that there is a large inter-national element in expectations.


Income OECD Estima Milton 


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Copyright information

© The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Paldam
    • 1
  1. 1.Aarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark

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