The Atmosphere — Ice — Water Interface: On the necessity of boundary layer modelling
In his search for energy sources and minerals, man has started to develop the high potential wealth of the Arctic. Thus, we must promote climatological, ecological, hydrographical and meteorological studies, to provide knowledge of how nature behaves in this region. Such knowledge must then be used to set recommendations or guidelines for the establishment of industrial plants, inhabited centres, etc. Problems connected with the diffusion of pollutants under temperature inversion conditions are of especial interest.
Such developments will in turn activate communications so that, for example, shipping will need precise knowledge of sea-ice situations, ice drift and formation of pressure ridges.
There is need also for forecasting snowstorms, fog formation, riming or icing of structures, etc. all of which can be highly destructive in these latitudes.
Recent efforts for improving the reliability and the length of weather forecasts (for example, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts in Reading, United Kingdom) have prompted the organisation of extensive international experiments, for example, GATE and FGGE (GARP, 1970, 1973), aimed at studying the basic energy source of the atmospheric machine, that is, the equatorial and tropical zones. However, polar regions act as the main energy sink, and are modulated by the extent of sea ice. This side of the problem should be studied equally intensively. Without doubt, the pioneering work of the AIDJEX Group (Maykut, Thorndike and Untersteiner, 1972; Untersteiner, 1974) provides a good start, which must now be extended (AIDJEX, 1977, 1978). It should also be noted that polar meteorology can have a direct connection with mid-latitudes weather (Weiler, 1975; see also the special issue of Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans (1979), 3,2–4).
KeywordsConvection Shipping Radar Stratification Advection
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- AIDJEX (1977). Proceedings of Symposium on Sea Ice Processes and Models, Vol. I, September 6–9, Seattle, 259 pp.Google Scholar
- AIDJEX (1978). Aidjex Bulletin,39, May.Google Scholar
- Businger, J. A. and Arya, S. P. S. (1974). Height of the mixed layer in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer, Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 18A (ed. Frenkiel), Academic Press, New York, pp. 73–92.Google Scholar
- Deardorff, J. W. (1974). Three-dimensional numerical study of turbulence in an entraining mixed layer, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 7, No. 2, 199–226.Google Scholar
- Doronin, Yu. P. (1970). Thermal interaction of the atmosphere and the hydrosphere in the Arctic, Israel Progr. for Scientific Transl., Jerusalem, 244 p.Google Scholar
- Garnich, N. G. and Kitaigorodskii, S. A. (1977). On the rate of deepening of the oceanic mixed layer, Izv. Acad. Sci., Atm. Ocean. Phys., 13, No. 12, 888–893.Google Scholar
- Garnich, N. G. and Kitaigorodskii, S. A. (1978). On the theory of the deepening of the upper quasi-homogeneous ocean layer owing to the processes of purely wind-induced mixing, Izv. Acad. Sci., Atm. Ocean. Phys., 14, No. 10, 748–755.Google Scholar
- GARP (1970). The planning of GARP tropical experiments, GARP Publ. Series, No. 4, Joint Organizing Committee, Geneva.Google Scholar
- GARP (1973). The first GARP global experiment—objectives and plans, ARP Publ. Series, No. 11, Joint Organizing Committee, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Joffre, S. M. (1978). Studies of the winter-time boundary layer over the Baltic Sea based on pilot-balloon soundings, Merentutkimuslaitoksen Julk., No. 243, 3–62.Google Scholar
- Kantha, L. H. (1978). On wind-induced mixing in the upper ocean, Ocean Modelling, 15, 1–4.Google Scholar
- Kondo, J. (1971). Effect of radiative heat transfer on profiles of wind, temperature and water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer, J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, Ser. II, 49, No. 2, 75–94.Google Scholar
- Leppäranta, M. (1980). Modelling and forecasting sea ice motion in the Baltic Sea, presented at the 13th Symposium of Baltic Oceanographers, 14–19 April 1980, Leningrad.Google Scholar
- Lettau, H. H. and Davidson, B. (1958). Exploring the Atmosphere’s First Mile, Vols 1 and 2, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Maykut, G. A., Thorndike, A. J. and Untersteiner, N. (1972). AIDJEX scientific plan, AIDJEX Bull., 15, 1–67.Google Scholar
- Niiler, P. P. and Kraus, E. B. (1977). One-dimensional models of the upper ocean. In: Modelling and Prediction of the Upper Layers of the Ocean (ed. E. B. Kraus), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 143 – 172.Google Scholar
- Pollard, R. T., Rhines, P. B. and Thompson, R. O. R. Y. (1973). The deepening of the wind mixed layer, Geophys. Fluid Dyn., 3, 381 – 404.Google Scholar
- Roll, H. U. (1965). Physics of the marine atmosphere. In: (ed. Van Mieghem) International Geophysics Series, No. 7, Academic Press, New York, 426 pp.Google Scholar
- Untersteiner, N. (1974). The Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment (AIDJEX), Arctic Bulletin, National Science Foundation, Washington DC.Google Scholar