Verification, as an activity associated with international agreements, has a long history. It played a role in the first United States treaty dealing with arms control. That treaty, known as the Rush-Bagot Treaty, was negotiated with the United Kingdom over 160 years ago. Signed in 1817, it had both quantitative and qualitative provisions affecting naval forces on the ‘American Lakes’, and thus, compliance needed to be verified. As it turned out, the sides cooperated extensively, and since everything was out in the open in a relatively small area, verification with high confidence was easily achieved.


National Security Weapon System Ballistic Missile Treaty Provision Covert Activity 
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  1. 2.
    The White House, Remarks of The President at Congressional Space Medals Awards Ceremony, Kennedy Space Center (10 October 1978).Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Perry, Robert, The Faces of Verification (Santa Monica, CA, The Rand Corporation, 1977).Google Scholar

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© Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr and Uri Ra’anan 1981

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