Verification and Salt: A Different Line of Insight



My view about verification has developed over many years.1 I hope that I have made progress along the route. I regard verification machinery, especially of the kind covered under the rubric of ‘national technical means’, as not being artifacts of nature. We are not operating the first four moons of Jupiter over the Soviet Union. Instead, we are operating man-made gadgets, and the other NTMs on the ground, as they were in Iran and Turkey, are also man-made gadgets. The other side knows about them. A bastardised Heisenberg’s principle, which argues that there is interaction between the observer and the observed, is at work here. We are not picking up independent facts, just because we are exceptionally clever, have so much money, so much time, such good luck, and all that; there is interaction, there is feedback.


National Security Kamchatka Peninsula Soviet Leader Launch Missile Intelligence Analyst 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    See Amrom Katz, ‘Verification of SALT: The State of the Art and the Art of the State’, The Heritage Foundation, Washington (April 1979) for a detailed discussion of these matters.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr and Uri Ra’anan 1981

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations