Advertisement

Political Opinion Polling in Germany

  • Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann

Abstract

After the capitulation of the Reich in 1945, German public opinion polling developed in an extremely peculiar manner in that part of Germany that first included the Western zones occupied by the UK, USA and France and then became the Federal Republic of Germany. The development had two roots, each almost completely independent of the other. There was also a more indirect third root, namely, the great German social inquiries of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These inquiries involved written interviews with structured questionnaires and thousands of respondents on themes like ‘Research on the State of the Farm Worker’ (questionnaires dispatched to 15000 landowners in 1874–5); The State of Factory Workers and Apprentices’ (questionnaires to 7000 factory proprietors, workers and apprentices in 1875); The Morale in the Countryside’ (questionnaires to 14 000 Protestant pastors in 1895); and so on (Oberschall, 1962). But this tradition was destroyed by the First World War. Again, in 1933, just as smaller inquiries were getting back on their feet in Germany, and even more widespread in Austria, the establishment of the Third Reich in Germany put an end to empirical social research (Jahoda et al, 1933).

Keywords

Public Opinion Federal Election Public Opinion Poll Federal Ministry Public Opinion Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography AND References

  1. Augstein, Rudolf (1974), ‘Demoskopie und Politik’, speech given at the 25th anniversary of the Institut für Demoskopie Aliensbach on 6 June 1972 in Bonn: reprinted in Elisabeth Noelle and Peter Erich Neumann (eds), Jahrbuch der öffentlichen Meinung 1968–1973 (Allensbach/Bonn: Verlag für Demoskopie).Google Scholar
  2. Conradt, David P. (1978), The 1976 campaign and election: an overview’, in Karl H. Cerny (ed.), Germany at the Polls, The Bundestag Election of1976 (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research), pp. 29–56.Google Scholar
  3. Gallup, George H. (1928), ‘An objective method for determining reader-interest in the content of newspapers’, dissertation, University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  4. Grünewald, Arnim (1980), Keynote address on ‘Opinion Polls’, in ESOMAR: Seminar on Opinion Polls in conjunction with the World Association for Public Opinion Research, in Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 23–6 January (Amsterdam: ESOMAR), pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  5. Institut fürDemoskopie Aliensbach (1969), ‘Wählermeinung — nicht geheim’, a documentation of the second German television network (Allensbach/Bonn: Verlag für Demoskopie).Google Scholar
  6. Institut fürDemoskopie Aliensbach (1978), ‘Was heisst Meinungsforschung?’, Aliensbacher Bericht, no. 26.Google Scholar
  7. Jahoda, Marie, Lazarsfeld, Paul F. and Zeisel, Hans (1933), Die Arbeitslosen von Marienthal (Leipzig: Verlag S. Hirzel). New edition by Verlag für Demoskopie, Allensbach/Bonn 1960, introduction by Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and appendix by Hans Zeisel, ‘Zur Geschichte der Soziographie’.Google Scholar
  8. Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Berelson, Bernard and Gaudet, Hazel (1944), The People’s Choice. How the Voter Makes Up his Mind in a Presidential Campaign (New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 2nd edn, 1948; 3rd edn, New York: Columbia University Press, 1968).Google Scholar
  9. Merritt, Anna J. and Merritt, Richard L. (1970), Public Opinion in Occupied Germany. The OMGUS Surveys 1945–1949 (Urbana, I11.: University of Illinois Press).Google Scholar
  10. Neumann, Erich Peter (1951), ‘Politische und soziale Meinungsforschung in Deutschland’, paper presented to a work session about Empirical Social Research in Weinheim/Bergstrasse, 14 December.Google Scholar
  11. Noelle, Elisabeth (1940), Meinungs- und Massenforschung in den USA. Umfragen über Politik und Presse (Zeitung und Zeit, Neue Folge, Part A, vol. 16) (Frankfurt/Main: Verlag Moritz Diesterweg).Google Scholar
  12. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1947a), ‘Die Meinung der Studenten’, in Studentische Blätter, July.Google Scholar
  13. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1947b), ‘Vom Zeitbild der Studenten. Bericht über eine Umfrage in Tübingen und Freiburg’, in Die Gegenwart, vol. 2, nos 21/2, 30 November, pp. 15–18.Google Scholar
  14. Noelle, Elisabeth (1963), Umfragen in der Massengesellschaft. Einführung in die Methoden der Demoskopie (Reinbek: Rowohlt Paperback Press, 1963, 7th edn, 1976 Ref.: vol. 177). Translations are available in French, Dutch, Czech, Spanish and Russian. A new edition is under way and will probably appear in 1983; likewise an English edition.Google Scholar
  15. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1973), ‘Return to the concept of powerful mass media’, in Studies of Broadcasting, no. 9, March, pp. 67–112 (paper presented to the XXth International Congress of Psychology on 16 August 1976 in Tokyo).Google Scholar
  16. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1974), ‘Wahlentscheidung in der Fernsehdemokratie. Eine sozialpsychologische Interpretation der Bundestagswahl 1972’, in Auf der Suche nach dem mündigen Wähler. Die Wahlentscheidung 1972 and ihre Konsequenzen, ed. Dieter Just and Lothar Romain (Bonn: Köllen) pp. 161–205. (Schriftenreihe der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Heft 101); reprinted in:Google Scholar
  17. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1980), Wahlentscheidung in Der Fernsehdemokratie (Freiburg/Würzburg: Verlag Ploetz).Google Scholar
  18. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1977), ‘Das doppelte Meinungsklima. Der Einfluss des Fernsehens im Wahlkampf 1976’, in Politische Vierteljahresschrift, vol. 18, nos 2/3, 1977. Wahlsoziologie heute. Analysen aus Anlass der Bundestagswahl 1976, pp. 408–51; reprinted in:Google Scholar
  19. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1980), Wahlentscheidung in der Fernsehdemokratie (Freiburg/Würzburg: Verlag Ploetz).Google Scholar
  20. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1978a), ‘The dual climate of opinion: the influence of television in the 1976 West German federal election’, in Elections and Parties. Sociopolitical Change and Participation in the West German Federal Election of 1976, ed. M. Kaase and K. von Beyme (German Political Studies, vol. 3) (London/Beverly Hills: Sage) pp. 137–69.Google Scholar
  21. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1978b), ‘Kampf um die öffentliche Meinung’, in Entscheidung ohne Klarheit. Anmerkungen und Materialien zur Bundestagswahl 1976, ed. Dieter Just and Peter Röhrig (Bonn: Köllen) pp. 125–56. (Schriftenreihe der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Heft 127); reprinted inGoogle Scholar
  22. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1980), Wahlentscheidung in der Fernsehdemokratie (Freiburg/Würzburg: Verlag Ploetz).Google Scholar
  23. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1980a), Die Schweigespirale. Öffentliche Meinung-unsere soziale Haut (Munich: Piper).Google Scholar
  24. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1980b), ‘The public opinion correspondent’, Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 44, pp. 585–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth and Neumann, Erich Peter (eds), Jahrbuch der öffentlichen Meinung (Allensbach/Bonn: Verlag für Demoskopie): vol. I: Ergebnisse 1947–55; vol. II: Ergebnisse 1956–7; vol. III: Ergebnisse 1958–64; vol. IV: Ergebnisse 1965–67; vol. V: Ergebnisse 1968–73.Google Scholar
  26. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (ed.), Aliensbacher Jahrbuch der Demoskopie (Vienna/Munich/Zurich/Innsbruck: Molden): vol. VI: Ergebnisse 1974–6; vol. VII: Ergebnisse 1976–7.Google Scholar
  27. Noelle, Elisabeth, and Neumann, Erich Peter (eds) (1967), The Germans. Public Opinion Polls 1947–1966 (Bonn: Verlag für Demoskopie).Google Scholar
  28. Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (ed.) (1981), The Germans. Public Opinion Polls 1967–1980 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press).Google Scholar
  29. Oberschall, Anthony R. (1962), ‘Empirical social research in Germany 1848–1914’, dissertation, Columbia University, Bureau of Applied Social Research.Google Scholar
  30. Riegel, O. W. (1950), Report on a Survey of Public Opinion Research and Training in West Germany, June-September 1950, submitted to the Department of State, Washington, DC, 30 October.Google Scholar
  31. Schmid, Carlo (1976), ‘Ein Gruss an Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann zum 60. Geburtstag am 19 Dezember 1976’, in Publizistik, no. 21, p. 467.Google Scholar
  32. Schmidtchen, Gerhard (1959), Die befragte Nation. Über den Einfluss der Meinungsforschung auf die Politik (Freiburg: Verlag Rombach, 2nd edn 1961; revised paperback edn, Munich, 1965, Fischer Taschenbuch 689).Google Scholar
  33. Stackeiberg, Karl-Georg von (1975), Souffleur auf politischer Bühne. Von der Macht der Meinungen und den Meinungen der Mächtigen (Munich: Verlag Moderne Industrie).Google Scholar
  34. Wendt, Friedrich (1960), ‘Wann wird das Quotenverfahren begraben?’, in Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv, vol. 1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Robert M. Worcester 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations