Civil wars are notoriously messy wars. The military campaigns between the North and the Confederacy in the USA in 1861–1865 had a brutal neatness; but they were exceptional. When a state collapses into internal war, cross-cutting tensions and enmities are typically released. The civil war in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland in the mid-seventeenth century is an example. National, regional and confessional as well as social and economic divisions became sharper and cut deep tranches of lasting embitterment into the attitudes and practices of the combatant armies.
KeywordsCommunist Party Political Life Central Committee Soviet Republic Socialist Revolution
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