Methods for the Assessment of the Effects of Drugs on Renal Blood Flow

  • R. M. Pearson


In man, total renal blood flow (RBF) is about 1.2 1/min, some 25% of the cardiac output and therefore of considerable circulatory importance. Recent trends in physiology have focused interest on the relationship between RBF and the control of tubular reabsorption. With the introduction of powerful pharmacological agents which affect the resistance to renal blood flow, there has been increasing interest in accurate methods for its measurement.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BJORN, L., & PETTERSSON, H. (1977). Hydro and haemodynamic effects of catheterisation of vessels mechanical model. Acta radiol. (Stockh) Diagnostica. 18, 193–209.Google Scholar
  2. BLAUFOX, M.D. & MERRILL, J.P. (1966). Simplified hippuran clearance. Nephron, 3, 274–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. BRECKENRIDGE, A., ORME, M. & DOLLERY, C.T. (1971). Effects of dopamine on renal blood flow in man. Eur. J. clin. Pharmac. 3, 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BRITTON, K.E., BROWN, N.J.G. & BLUHM, M.M. (1971). Xenon washout. Lancet, ii, 822.Google Scholar
  5. BRITTON, K.E. & BROWN, N.J.G. (1971). Clinical Renography. London: Lloyd-Luke.Google Scholar
  6. BRITTON, K.E., BROWN, N.J.G., CRUZ, F., CHANG, H.C., ROLPHS, D. & MYERS, M. (1976). Deconvolution analysis of dynamic curves. In Information Processing in Scintigraphy. Proc. IV Int. Conf. pp 244–260, Ed. Raynaud C. & Todd Pokropek, A. Orsay, Paris.Google Scholar
  7. BRUN, C., CRONE, C. DAVIDSEN, H.G., FABRICIUS, T., HANSEN, A.T., LASSEN, N.A., & MUNCK, O. (1955). Renal blood flow in anuric human subjects determined by the use of radioactive K85. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 84, 687–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. BURBANK, M.K., TAUXE, W.N., MAHER, F.T. & HUNT, J.C. (1961). Evaluation of radioiodinated hippuran for the estimation of renal blood flow. Proc. Mayo Clin., 36, 372–386.Google Scholar
  9. CHASSIS, H., RANGES, H.A., GOLDRING, W. & SMITH,H.W. (1938), The control of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration in normal man. J. clin. Invest., 17, 683–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. CHRYSANT, S.G., ADAMOPOULOS, P., TSUCHIYA, M. & FROLICH, E.D. (1976). Systemic and haemodynamic effects of bupicomide. Am. Heart. J., 92, 335–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CONN, H.L., &ERSON, W. & ARENA, S. (1953). Gas diffusion technique for measurement of renal blood flow with special reference to the intact anuric subject. J. appl. Physiol., 5, 683–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. CROSSLEY, A.P., BROWN, S.F., HUSTON, J.H., EMANUEL, D.A., TUCHMAN, H., EASTILLO, C. & ROWE, G.G. (1956) Adaptation of nitrous oxide method to determine renal blood flow and in vivo renal weight in man. J. clin. Invest., 35, 1340–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DELL, R.B., SCIACCA, R., LIEBERMAN, K., CASE, D.B. & CANNON, S.P. (1973). Weighted least-squares technique for analysis of kinetic data and its application to the study of renal 1;3Xenon washout in dogs and man. Circulation Res., 32, 71–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DOLLERY, C.T., GOLDBERG, L.I. & PENTECOST, B.L. (1965). Effects of intrarenal infusions of tradykinin and acetylcholine on renal blood flow in man. Clin. Sci. mol. Med., 29, 433–441.Google Scholar
  15. DONKER, A.J.M., ARISZ, L., BRENTJENS, J.R.H., VAN DER HEM, H. & HOLLEMANS, H.J.G. (1976). Effect of indomethecin on kidney function and plasma renin activity in man. Nephron, 17, 288–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. ERIKSON, U., LINDGREN, P.G., LOFROTH, P.O., RUHN, G. & WOLGAST, M. (1977). Videodensitometry. Acta Radiol. (Stockh) Diagnostica, 18, 225–234.Google Scholar
  17. GLASS, H. I. & DE GARRETTA, A.C. (1971). Quantitative limitations of exponential curve fitting. Phys. in Med. Biol. 16 119–130.Google Scholar
  18. GOTT, F.S., PRICHARD, W.H., YOUNG, W.R. & MACINTYRE, W.S. (1962). Renal blood flow measurement from the disappearance of intravenously injected hippuran. J. nuc. Med., 3, 480–485.Google Scholar
  19. HELLSTEN, S. & PETTERSSON, H. (1977). Hydro- and haemodynamic effects of catheterisation of vessels. Acta Radiol. (Stockh) Diagnostica. 18, 17–24.Google Scholar
  20. HENK, J.M., COTTRALL, M.F. & TAYLOR, D.M. (1967). Radiation dosimetry of the 131I hippuran renogram. Br. J. Radiol., 40, 327–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. HOLLENBERG, N.K., EPSTEIN, M., ROSEN, S.M., BASCH, R.I., OKEN, P.E. & MERRILL, J.P. (1968). Acute oliguric renal failure in man-evidence for preferential renal cortical ischaemia. Medicine (Baltimore), 47, 455–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. HOLLENBERG, N.K., EPSTEIN, M., GUTTMAN, R.D., CONROY, M., BASCH, R.I. & MERRILL, J.P. (1970). Effect of sodium balance on intrarenal distribution of blood flow in normal man. J. app!. Physio. 28, 312–317.Google Scholar
  23. HOLLENBERG, N.K., MANGEL, R. & FUNG, H.Y. (1976). Assessment of intrarenal perfusion with radioxenon-a critical review of analytical factors and their implications in man. SeminarNucl. Med., 6, 193–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. HOLLENBERG, N.K., SOLOMON, H.S., ADAMS, D.F., ABRAMS, H.L. & MERRILL, J.P. (1972). Renal vascular responses to angiotensism and norepinephrine in normal man. Circulation Res., 31, 750–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. HOLLENBERG, N.K., S&OR, T., CONROY, M., ADAMS, D.F., SOLOMON, H.S., ABRAMS, H.L. & MERRILL, J P (1973). Xenon transit through the oliguric kidney. Analysis by maximum likelihood. Kidney Int., 3, 177–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. HOLLENBERG, N.K., WILLIAMS, G.H., BERGER, B., ISHIKAWA, I. & ADAMS, D.F. (1976). Blockade and stimulation of renal adrenal and vascular angiotension II receptors with 1-Sar, 8-Ala, Angiotensin II in normal man. J. clin. Invest., 57, 39–46.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. JAMES, I.M. (1968). Haemodynamic and associated metabolic changes following acute cerebrovascular catastrophes, p. 84. Ph.D. Thesis. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. KETY, S. (1951). Theory and applications of the exchange of inert gases at the lungs and tissues. Pharmac. Rev., 3, 1–41.Google Scholar
  29. KOSHY, M.C., MICKLEY, D., BOURGOIGNIE, J. & BLAUFOX, M.D. (1977). Physiologic evaluation of a new antihypertensive agent: Prazosin hydrochloride. Circulation, 55, 533–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. LADEFOGED, J. (1966). Measurements of renal blood flow in man with the 133Xenon washout technique. Scand. J. clin. lab. Invest., 18, 299–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. LOOYE, A. (1970). Automated simultaneous determination of p acetylaminohippurate and inulin in serum. Clin. Chem. 16, 753–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. MAHER, F.T. & TAUXE, W.N. (1969). Renal clearance in man of pharmaceuticals containing radioactive iodine. Influence of protein binding. J. Am. med. Ass., 207, 97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. MAHER, F.T., TAUXE, W.N., STRONG, C.G. & ELVEBACK, L.R. (1970). Renal clearance in man of pharmaceuticals containing radioactive iodine. Influence of added carrier iodopyracet and o-iodo-hippurate. Proc. Mayo Clin., 45, 700–711.Google Scholar
  34. MORGAN, W.D., BIRKS, J.L., SIVYER, A. & GHOSE, A.R. (1977). Efficient technique for simultaneous estimation of GFR and ERPF. Involving a single injection and two blood samples. Int. J. Nucl. Med. Biol., 4, 79–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. MOWAT, P., LUPU, A.N. & MAXWELL, M.H. (1972). Limitations of the 133Xenon washout technique in the estimation of renal blood flow. Am. J. Physio., 223, 682–688.Google Scholar
  36. ORME, M. L’E., BRECKENRIDGE, A.M. & DOLLERY, C.T. (1973). Effects of long term administration of dopamine on renal function in hypertensive subjects. Eur. J. clin. Pharmac., 6, 155–155.Google Scholar
  37. PEDERSEN, E.B. (1975). Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow in patients with essential hypertension before and after treatment with Alprenolol. Acta med. Scand., 198, 365–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. PETERS, P.E. & EICHLING, J.O. (1972). 133Xenon uptake by radioopaque catheters. Radiology, 102, 202–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. PRICHARD, W.H., ECKSTEIN, R.W., MACINTYRE, W.J. & DABAJ, E. (1965). Correlation of renal blood flow determined by a single injection of hippuran 131I with direct measurements of flow. Am. Heart. J., 70, 789–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. RAM, M.D., EVANS, K. & CHISHOLM, G.D. (1968). Single injection method for measurement of ERPF. Br. J. Urol., 40, 425–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. RASHUDA, A., HOLLENBERG, N.K., ADAMS, D.F., SOLOMON, H.S., ABRAMS, H.L. & MERRILL, J.P. (1977). Effect of acetylcholine on renal vasculature in normal man. J. app. Physiol., 32, 669–674.Google Scholar
  42. REUBI, F.C., GOSSWEILER, N. & GERTLER, R. (1966). Renal circulation in man studied by the dye dilution method. Circulation, 32, 426–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. REUBI, F.C., VORBERGER, C., PFEIFFER, G. & GOLDER, S. (1977). Comparison of renal blood flow and transit tissues measure by means of 99Tc-labelled erythrocytes and Indocyanine green in humans with normal and diseased kidneys. Clin. Sci. mol. Med., 51, 151–159.Google Scholar
  44. ROSEN, S.M., HOLLENBERG, N.K., DEALY, J.B., MERRILL, J.P. (1968). Measurement of the distribution of blood flow in the human kidney using intra-arterial injection of 133Xenon. Relationship to function in normal and transplanted kidney. Clin. Sci., 34, 287–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. SAPIRSTEIN, L.A., VIDT, D.G., M&EL, M.J. & HANHSEK, G. (1955). Volumes of distribution and clearances of intravenously injected creatinine. Am. J. Physio., 181, 330–336.Google Scholar
  46. SCHALEKAMP, M.A.D.H., BIRKENHAGER, W.H., ZAAL, G.A. & KOLSTERS, G. (1977). Haemodynamic characteristics of low renin hypertension. Clin. Sci. mol. Med., 52, 402–412.Google Scholar
  47. SCHWARTZ, F.D. & MADEZOFF, M.S. (1961). Simultaneousrenal clearances of radiohippuran and PAH in man. Clin. Res., 9, 208.Google Scholar
  48. SCHMITZ-FEURHAKE, I., FALKENRECK-HERBST, I., COBURG, A.J., WONIGEIT, K. & PREVOT, H. (1978)Atraumatic method of renal blood flow estimation by 133Xenon inhalation and its application to transplanted kidneys. Europ. J. Clin. Invest., 8, 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. SHILLINGFORD, J., BRUCE, J. & GABE, I. (1967). Measurement of segmental venous flow by indicator dilution method. Br. Heart J., 24, 157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. SLOTKOFF, L.M., LOGAN, A., JOSE, P., D’AVELLA, J. & EISNER, G.M. (1971). Microsphere measurement of intrarenal circulation of the dog. Circulation Res., 28, 158–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. SMITH, H.W. (1940). Physiology of the renal circulation. Harvey Lect., 35, 204.Google Scholar
  52. SMITH, H.W., FINKELSTEIN, N., ALIMINOSA, L., CRANFORD, B. & GRABER, M. (1945). Renal clearances of substituted hippuric acid derivatives and other aromatic acids in dog and man. J. clin. Invest., 24, 388–404.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. SMITH, H.W. (1956). Principles of renal physiology. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. TAUXE, W.N., MAHER, F.T. & TAYLOR, W.F. (1971). Effective renal plasma flow: estimation from theoretical volumes of distribution of intravenously injected I orthocodohippurated. Proc. Mayo clin., 46, 524–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. THORBURN, G.D., KOPALD, H.H., HERD, J.A., HOLLENBERG, N.K., O’MARCHOE, C.C.C., & BARGER,A.S. (1963). Intrarenal distribution of nutrient blood flow determined by Kr85 in unanaesthetised dog. Circulation Res., 13, 290–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. VARGA, L., KELEMEN, I. & KOVACH, A. (1968). Paper chromatographic study of radioactive contaminants of I-hippuran. J. nucl. Med., 9, 604–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. WAGONER, R.D., TAUXE, W.N., MAHER, F.T. & HUNT, J.C. (1964). Measurement of effective renal plasma flow with sodium iodohippurate “’I. J. Am. med. Ass., 187, 811–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. WILKINSON, S.P., BERNARDI, M., PEARCE, P.E., BRITTON, K.E., BROWN, N.J.G., POSTON, L, CLARKE, M., JENNER, R. & WILLIAMS, R. (1978). Validation of transit renography for the determination of intra renal distribution of plasma flow: comparison with the microsphere method in the unanaesthetised rabbit and pig. Clin. Sci. mol. Med., 55, 277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. ZIERLER, K.L. (1965). Equations for measuring blood flow by external monitoring of radioisotopes. Circulation Res., 16, 319–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Limited 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. M. Pearson
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical UnitThe Royal Free HospitalHampsteadLondonUK

Personalised recommendations