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Socialism and Agriculture

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Abstract

The discussion on the multiplicity of problems lurking beneath the heading ‘Socialism and Agriculture’ has taken a highly unsatisfying course, by and large. Many people have rightly been censured for excessively simplifying the problem both methodologically and factually, by reducing it to the ‘question of the size of the enterprise’. One assertion is confronted with another, all parties to the dispute try to back up their theses with statistics, and finally one begins as one reads to wonder whether the subject of discussion has not somehow been displaced. One begins to ask whether it is really of such decisive significance for the possibility of a socialist society that the small-scale agricultural enterprise should be driven out in accordance with an inescapable natural law by the superior large-scale enterprise. A pre-condition for clarification would be a more precise definition of the ‘socialist society’ under discussion. Connected with this is a second question, as to what economic and social conditions must be fulfilled in agricultural production to make such a socialist society at all possible.

Keywords

Socialist Society Agricultural Enterprise Cereal Cultivation Agrarian Policy Scale Enterprise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    A. Schaffte, Die Aussichtslosigkeit der Sozialdemokratie (Tübingen, 1887) p. 26.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Julius Wolff, Sozialismus und kapitalistische Gesellschaftsordnung (Stuttgart, 1892) pp. 340 et seq.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Werner Sombart, Der proletarische Sozialismus (Marxismus) (Jena, 1924) p. 329.Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    F. David, Sozialismus und Landwirtschaft (Leipzig, 1922) pp.680 et seq.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    K. Kautsky, Die Agrarfrage (Stuttgart, 1899) pp. 93 et seq.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Both Conrad Hainisch (Die Landflucht, ihr Wesen und ihre Bekämpfung, Jena, 1924, p. 74)Google Scholar
  7. Cf. K. A. Wittfogel, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Chinas (Leipzig, 1931) pp. 351–81.Google Scholar
  8. 12.
    On this and the following passage, see the minutes of both party congresses and the elucidations of the agrarian programmes by O. Bauer (Sozialdemokratische Agrarpolitik, Vienna, 1926) and H. Krüger and F. Baade (Sozialdemokratische Agrarpolitik, Berlin, n d.).Google Scholar
  9. 25.
    (E. Grote, Betrachtungen zum sozialdemokratischen Agrarprogramm des Kieler Parteitags, dissertation, Berlin, 1930)Google Scholar
  10. 26.
    Marx, Capital, vol. 3, chapter 47, p. 813 (Moscow edition of 1971).Google Scholar
  11. 29.
    C. Grünberg, ‘Agrarverfassung – I. Begriffliches und Zuständliches’, in Grundriss der Sozialökonomik, vol. 3, section 7 (Tübingen, 1922) pp. 132 et seq.Google Scholar
  12. 31.
    Marx, Capital, vol. 3, p. 813 (Moscow edition of 1971).Google Scholar
  13. 32.
    M. Bourguin, Les systèmes Socialistes et l’Évolution économique (Paris, 1925).Google Scholar
  14. 33.
    C. Grünberg, ‘Agrarpolitik’, in Die Entwicklung der deutschen Volkswirtschaftslehre im 19. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1908) p. 66.Google Scholar
  15. 35.
    Note also Dietze’s address on ‘Germany’s economic difficulties and the rural family’ at the Königsberg session of the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Schriften des Vereins für Sozialpolitik, vol. 182, Munich and Leipzig, 1931), and the lamentations at the Vienna Congress of the SPÖ (Protokoll, pp. 280 et seq.).Google Scholar
  16. 36.
    K. Ritter (the director of the Economic Institute attached to the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule in Berlin), Einflüsse des Kapitalismus auf Art und Grösse der landwirtschaftlichen Produktion (Berlin, 1929) pp. 12 and 35.Google Scholar
  17. 37.
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  18. 38.
    N. Jasny’s Die neuzeitliche Umstellung der überseeischen Getreideproduktion (Berlin, 1930)Google Scholar
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  20. 44.
    Cf. Kautsky’s comments in his ‘Agrarfrage’ (Die Agrarfrage, Stuttgart, 1899, p. 105).Google Scholar
  21. 49.
    These figures are taken from A. Gaister, ‘Planierung und Entwicklung der Landwirtschaft in der Sowjetunion’, in Die Volkswirtschaftliche Planierung in der UdSSR, Materialien zum Internat. Volkswirtschaftskongress in Amsterdam am 23 August 1931 (Vienna, 1931).Google Scholar
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  23. and O. Schiller, Die Kollektivbewegung in der Sowjetunion (Berlin, 1931).Google Scholar
  24. 51.
    K. Marx, Theories of Surplus Value, Part II (Moscow, 1968) p. 110. (Our italics.)Google Scholar
  25. 52.
    K. Marx, Capital, vol. 1 (London, 1976) p. 637.Google Scholar

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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1984

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