Canopy Structure and Environmental Interactions
patterns of vegetation have generally been recognized first on the basis of physiognomy, i.e., the structure of the vegetation canopy, and second by species composition. Several investigations have sought general relationships between physiognomy and climate; others have correlated physiognomy with soil properties. Raunkiaer (1934) emphasized the position (height above the ground surface) of the perennating bud and the protection of the buds during an unfavorable period. Clements (1916) proposed that with moderate, i.e., nonlimiting, conditions, the vegetation would tend toward the tallest height possible. Monk (1966), Beadle (1966), and Small (1972a,b) have emphasized the role of soil nutrients in selecting for evergreenness and sclerophylly, whereas others have suggested that drought leads to evergreenness and sclerophylly. Thus, a diversity of environmental factors has been suggested as important in selecting several elements of canopy structure.
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