Kolkhoz Income and Capital
The kolkhoz, like the individual peasant economy, was to a considerable extent a subsistence farm: part of the gross production of its socialised sector was used in kind to feed its members and its livestock, to provide seed and so on. This part of production thus became an income in kind, which did not involve a monetary transaction. The rest of kolkhoz production was sold to the state or on the market, and provided the major part of kolkhoz money income. Income in kind and money income were frequently combined and confused in the statistics, which did not always distinguish clearly between the money income of the kolkhoz, and the substantially larger total income in money terms, which included an estimate of the value of the kolkhoz income in kind.
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