Advertisement

Validation,evaluation,qualification, confirmation and assessment

  • Michel M. Benarie
Part of the Air Pollution Problems Series book series (AIRPP)

Abstract

The terms validation, assessment, evaluation, cross-evaluation and other similar expressions are employed rather loosely in air pollution modelling. For example, all authors do not use the word validation in the same sense, and it is all too infrequently defined. The meaning has to be guessed from the context and sometimes is fundamentally different from the meaning attributed to the same term by another author. For this reason we shall start this chapter with a few definitions. Some of them may seem arbitrary to some readers, whereas other readers may have already accepted our definitions. Their use will at least be consistent within this text.

Keywords

Sulphur Dioxide Comparative Validation Plume Rise Gaussian Plume Model Sulphur Dioxide Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, P. W. (1974). Regional air pollution study—an overview. Proc. 66th Annu. Meet Air Pollut. Control Assoc., Chicago, Ill. 24 to 28 June 1974, Paper, No. 73–21Google Scholar
  2. Badgley, F. I., Rossano, A. T., Jr., Lutrick, D., and Alsid, H. (1976). The selection and calibration of air quality diffusion models for Washington State Highway line sources. Washington State Highway Dep., Res. Rep., No. 12. 2 (Univ. Washington Res. Project, No. Y-1540)Google Scholar
  3. Beaton, J. L., Ranzieri, A. J., Shirley, E. C., and Skog, J. B. (1972). Air quality manual, vols Ito VIII. Dep. Transp., Fed. Highway Admin., Rep., Nos FHWA-RD-72–33 to FH W A-RD-72–40Google Scholar
  4. Benarie, M. (1975). Modelling urban air pollution. Atmos. Environ., 9, 552–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braig, A. (1975). Results of the revised ATDL model compared with the results of the AQDM and CDM models. Proc. 6th Meet. North Atlantic Treaty Organ.–Comm. Challenges Modern Soc. on Expert Panel Air Pollut. Modelling, Frankfurt, 24 to 26 September 1975, pp. 75–91Google Scholar
  6. Briggs G. A. (1971). Some recent analysis of plume rise observations. Proc. 2nd Int. Clean Air Congr., Washington, D.C., 6 to 10 December 1971 (eds H. M. Englund and W. T. Beery), Academic Press, New York, pp. 1029–32Google Scholar
  7. Busse, A. D., and Zimmermann, J. R. (1973). User’s guide to the climatological dispersion model. US Environ. Prot. Agency, Rep., No. EPA–R4–73–024, pp. 107–31, appendix EGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpenter, W. A., and Clemena, G. G. (1975). The theory and mathematical development of AIRPOL-4. Va Highway and Transp. Council, Rep., No. VHTRC75– R49Google Scholar
  9. Chen, T. C., and March, F. (1971). Effect of highway configurations on environmental problems—dynamics of highway-associated air pollution. Proc. 2nd Int. Clean Air Congr., Washington, D.C., 6 to 10 December 1970 (eds H. M. Englund and W. T. Beery, Academic Press, New York, pp. 35–40Google Scholar
  10. CONCAWE (1966). The calculation of atmospheric dispersion from a stack. CONCAWE, Hague, Publ., 57 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Danard, M. B., Koneru, R. S., and Slawson, P. R. (1971). A numerical model for carbon monoxide concentrations near highways. Proc. Symp. Air Pollut., Turbulence Diffusion, Las Cruces, New Mexico, 7 to 10 December 1971, pp. 152–7Google Scholar
  12. Darling, E. M., Jr. (1972). Computer modelling of transportation-generated air pollution—a state-of-the-art survey, Dep. Transp., Transp. Syst. Cent., Rep., No. DOT-TSC-OST-72–20Google Scholar
  13. Dreyhaupt, F. J. (1973). Praktische Anwendung der Ausbreitungsrechnung zur Normierung von Schutzabstände zwischen emittierenden Industrie und Wohngebiete. VDI Ber., No. 200 (in German)Google Scholar
  14. Eschenroeder, A. Q. (1975). An assessment of models for predicting quality. Environ. Res. Technol. Inc., Doc., No. ERTW-75–03, 83 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Eschenroeder, A. Q., Martinez, J. R., and Nordsieck, R. A. (1972). A view of future problems in air pollution modelling. Proc. 1972 Summer Comput. Simulation Conf., Simulation Councils Inc., La Jolla, Calif, pp. 1013–27Google Scholar
  16. ESL Inc. (undated). ESL Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif, Publ.Google Scholar
  17. Fabrick, A. J., and Sklarew, R. C. (1975). Cross evaluation of regional air pollution models. Proc. 68th Annu. Meet. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., Boston, Mass., 15 to 20 June 1975, 15 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Fox, D. G. (1974). The St Louis experience. Proc. Symp. Chem. Aspects Air Pollut. Modelling, Chapel Hill, N. C., April 1974Google Scholar
  19. Fox, D. G., and Pooler, F. (1973). The regional air pollution study updated. Proc. 4th Meet. North Atlantic Treaty Organ.–Comm. Challenges Modern Soc. Expert Panel Air Pollut. Modelling, Oberursel, 28 to 30 May 1973, pp. XII-1– XIII-31Google Scholar
  20. Frame, G. B. (1977). Simulation of airport air quality by box, photochemical and gaussian models. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 28, 155–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gifford, F. A.,(1973). The simple ATDL urban air pollution model. Proc. 4th Meet. North Atlantic Treaty Organ.–Comm. Challenges Modern Soc. Expert Panel Air Pollut. Modelling, Oberursel, 28 to 30 May 1973 pp. XVI-1–XVI-18Google Scholar
  22. Gifford, F. A.,(1974). Further comparisons of urban air pollution models. Proc. 5th Meet. North Atlantic Treaty Organ.–Comm. Challenges Modern Soc. Expert Panel Air Pollut. Modelling, 4 to 6 June 1974 pp. 38–1–38–9Google Scholar
  23. Hameed, S. (1974). Atmos. Environ. 8, 555–561, discussionCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huisman, M. L., and Verheul, C. M. (1974). STACMAP air pollution dispersion model. K. Inst. Ing., Haag (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  25. Intercomp (undated). Intercomp, Houston, Texas, Publ.Google Scholar
  26. Johnson, W., Sklarew, R. C., and Turner, D. B. (1976). Urban air quality simulation modelling, Air Pollution, vol. 1 (ed. A. C. Stern), Wiley, New York, chapter 10, pp. 504–62Google Scholar
  27. Klug, W. (1969). Ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Ausbreitungsbedingungen aus synoptischen Beobachtungen. Staub, 29, 143–7 (in German)Google Scholar
  28. Lamb, D. V., Badgley, F. I., and Rossano, A. T. J. (1973). A critical review of mathematical modelling techniques for air quality with relation to motor vehicle transportation. Washington State Highway Dep., Res. Rep., No. 12.1, 89 pp. (Univ. Washington Res. Project, No. Y-1540)Google Scholar
  29. Lewis, D. H., Plotkin, S. E., and Woodcock, K. R. (1971). Some applications of the implementation planning programme. TRW Syst. Group, Publ., No. APTD-0710Google Scholar
  30. Lissaman, P. B. S. (1973). A simple unsteady concentration model explicitly incorporating ground roughness and heat flux. Aeroenvironment, No. 73–129Google Scholar
  31. Liu, M. K., Whitney, D. C., Seinfeld, J. H., and Roth, P. M. (1976). Continued research in mesoscale air pollution simulation modeling vol. I, assessment of prior model evaluation studies and analysis of model validity and sensitivity. US Environ. Prot. Agency, Publ., No. EPA–600/4–76–016A, 246 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Maldonado, C., and Bullin, J. A. (1977). Modeling carbon monoxide dispersion from roadways. Env. Sci. and Techn., 11, 1071–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Miller, M. E. (1967). A note on comparison of statistical and analytical results for calculating oxides of nitrogen concentrations. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 17, 232–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nappo, C. (1974). A method for evaluating the accuracy of air pollution prediction models. Proc. Symp. Atmos. Diffusion Air Pollut., Santa Barbara, Calif., 9 to 13 September 1974, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Boston, Mass., pp. 325–9Google Scholar
  35. Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., and van Dop, H. (1975). Validation of a multiple source diffusion model based on the gaussian plume model. Proc. 6th North Atlantic Treaty Organ.—Comm. Challenges Modern Soc. Int. Tech. Meet. Air Pollut. Modelling, Frankfurt, 24 to 26 September 1975, pp. 601–32Google Scholar
  36. Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., Verheul, C. M., and Addicks, J. (1976). The validation of the Gaussian dispersion model for long term average ground-level concentrations in the Rijnmond region. Proc. 7th Int. Tech. Meet. Air Pollut. Modelling and Appl., Airlie, Va, 7 to 10, September 1976, 31 pp. + appendixGoogle Scholar
  37. Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., Verheul, C. M., and Addicks, J. (1977) A national air pollution model in the Netherlands. Proc. 4th Clean Air Congr., Tokyo, 16 to 20 May 1977, pp. 246–50Google Scholar
  38. Prahm, L. P., and Christensen, M. (1977). Validation of a multiple source gaussian air quality model. Atmos. Environ., 11, 791–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rote, D. M., Brubaker, K. L., Smith, A. E., Cirillo, R. R., and McHenry, J. (1977). Methodology for evaluating air quality modelling approaches for particular applications. Proc. 4th Clean Air Congr., Tokyo, 16 to 20 May 1977, pp. 255–7Google Scholar
  40. Ruff, R. E., and Fox, D. G. (1974). Evaluation of air quality models through the RAPS data base. Proc. 66th Annu. Meet. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., Chicago, Ill., 24 to 28 June 1974, Paper, No. 74–124Google Scholar
  41. Runca, E., Melli, P., and Zanetti, P. (1976). Computing of long-term average sulphur dioxide concentration in the Venetian area. Appl. Math. Modelling, 1, 9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schiermeier, F. A. (1978). RAPS’ field measurements. Environ. Sci. Technol. 12, 644–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shiozawa, K., and Okamoto, S. (1977). A modified plume model applicable to the unsteady weather conditions. Proc. 4th Int. Clean Air Congr., Tokyo, 16 to 20 May 1977, pp. 288–91Google Scholar
  44. Smith, M. E., and Singer, I. A. (1966). Atmospheric dispersion at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Int. J. Air Water Pollut., 10, 125–35Google Scholar
  45. Stern, R., Gutsche, B. and Timm, B. (1976). Calculation of the ambient air quality situation using the NATO—CCMS common data base for the test city. Proc. 7th Int. Meet. North Atlantic Treaty Organ.—Comm. Challenges Modern Soc. Expert Panel Air Pollut. Modelling, Durham, N.C., 13 to 16 September 1976Google Scholar
  46. Strombtone, R. L. (1974). Technology for environmental analysis, US Dep. Transp.US Environ. Prot. Agency Conf. Transp. Air Quality Analysis, JulyGoogle Scholar
  47. Strott, J. K. (1974). Application of the AQDM and the ATDL model and comparison of the results. Proc. 5th Meet. North Atlantic Treaty Organ.—Comm. Challenges Modern Soc. Expert Panel Air Pollut. Modelling, Roskilde, 4 to 6 June 1974, pp. 18–1–18–19Google Scholar
  48. Stumke, H. (1973). Suggestions for an empirical formula for chimney elevation. Staub, 23, 549 (in German)Google Scholar
  49. Transportation System Center (undated). Transp. Syst. Cent., Cambridge, Mass., Publ. 89 pp. + appendix 29 pp. (Nat! Tech. Inf: Serv. No. NTIS PB-213013)Google Scholar
  50. TRW Systems Group (1969). Air quality display model. TRW Syst. Group, Publ. (Public Health Serv., US Natl. Air Pollut. Control Admin., Contract, No. PH-2268–20) (Nat! Tech. Inf. Serv., No. NTIS-PB-189194)Google Scholar
  51. Turner, D. B., Zimmermann, J. R., and Busse, A. D. (1972). An evaluation of some climatological dispersion models. Proc. 3rd Meet. North Atlantic Treaty Organ.—Comm. Challenges Modern Soc. Expert Panel Air Pollut. Modelling, Paris, 2 to 3 October 1972, pp. VIII-1— VIII-25Google Scholar
  52. Ulbrich, E. A., Gugler, D. F., Jones, R. A., and Gearhart, G. L. (1971). An application of hybrid computation techniques to air pollution control. Simulations Councils Proc., 1, 7–18Google Scholar
  53. United States Environmental Protection Agency (1974). Guideline for air quality maintenance planning and analysis, vol. 12, applying atmospheric simulation models to air quality maintenance areas. US Environ. Prot. Agency, Publ. No. EPA-450/4/74–013, pp. 10–11 (Natl Tech. Inf. Serv. No. NTIS PB-237 750)Google Scholar
  54. Wang, I. T., and Rote, D. M. (1973). A finite line source dispersion model for mobile source air pollution. Argonne Natl Lab., Publ., No. 75–135Google Scholar
  55. Whitney, D. C. (1974). Analysis of results of past model verification studies. Syst. Appl. Inc., Publ.Google Scholar
  56. Bencala, E. K., and Seinfeld, J. H. (1979). An air quality model performance assessment package. Atmos. Environ., 13, 1181–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Michel M. Benarie 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel M. Benarie
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut National de Recherche Chimique AppliquéeVert-le-PetitFrance

Personalised recommendations