With the growth of nationalism and the ebbing of imperialism at the turn of the century, the literature of the Raj, a genre established by Kipling, underwent a corresponding change. One thing which is immediately obvious is that in the post-1914 period it became increasingly difficult for a writer working within the imperial context to share Kipling’s confidence and faith in the Raj and the imperial idea without serious doubts and fears. The degree of these doubts and fears about the future and validity of the Raj of course varies with individual writers. Nevertheless the era of confidence was gone for ever; it was now replaced by an era of doubt and melancholy.

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© Shamsul Islam 1979

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