Reproduction in male marsupials

  • B. P. Setchell
Part of the Studies in Biology, Economy and Society book series


For as long as marsupials have been known, the female has always excited more scientific interest than the male, and many of the early accounts of marsupials concerned themselves only with the female (see Hartmann, 1952). Nevertheless, the male marsupial has many features of interest and there is an extensive literature dating back to Cowper (1704). In this review I have endeavoured to describe aspects of reproductive physiology of the male marsupial where some advances have been made recently or where the situation in the marsupial is of particular interest. Structure of the mature spermatozoa, anatomy of the penis and seasonal patterns of reproduction have not been included.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, J. (1847–9). Prostate gland. In: Cyclopedia of Anatomy and Physiology, Vol. IV, Pt. 1 (ed. R. B. Todd), Longman, Brown, Green Longmans and Roberts, London, pp. 146–62.Google Scholar
  2. Agar, W. E. (1923). The male meiotic phase in two genera of marsupials (Macropus and Petauroides). Quart. J. Microscop. Sci., 67, 183–202.Google Scholar
  3. Azzali, G. and DiDio, L. J. A. (1965). The lymphatic system of Didelphys azarae and Didelphys marsupialis. Am. J. Anat., 116, 449–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin, J. and Temple-Smith, P. (1973). Distribution of LDH-X in mammals: presence in marsupials and absence in the monotremes Platypus and Echidna. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 46B, 805–11.Google Scholar
  5. Bancroft, B. J. (1973). Embryology of Schoinobates volans (Kerr) (Marsupialia: Petauridae).Aust. J. Zool., 21, 33–52.Google Scholar
  6. von Bardeleben, K. (1896). Uber Spermatogenese bei Monotremen und Beutelthieren. Verh. Anat. Ges. Jena. 10, 38–43.Google Scholar
  7. Bardin, C. W. and Peterson, R. E. (1967). Studies of androgen production by the rat: testosterone and androstenedione content of blood. Endocrinology, 80, 38–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnett, C. H. and Brazenor, C. W. (1958). The testicular rete mirabile of marsupials. Aust. J. Zool., 6, 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beddard, F. E. (1891). On the pouch and brain of the male thylacine. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 138–45.Google Scholar
  10. Benda, C. (1906). Die Spermiogenese der Marsupialier. Denkschr. Med. Naturw. Ges. Jena. 6, 441–58.Google Scholar
  11. Biggers, J. D. (1964). Reproduction in male marsupials. Symp. Zool. Soc. London, 15, 25 1–80.Google Scholar
  12. Binder, S. (1927). Spermatogenese von Macropus giganteus. Z. Zellforsch, 5, 293–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boardman, W. (1945). Some points in the external morphology of the pouch young of the marsupial Thylacinus cynocephalus Harris. Proc. Linnean Soc. N. S. Wales. 70, 1–8.Google Scholar
  14. Bolliger, A. (1942). Spermatorrhoea in marsupials with special reference to the action of sex hormones on spermatogenesis of Trichosurus vulpecula. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales., 76, 86–92.Google Scholar
  15. Bolliger, A,(1943). Functional relations between scrotum and pouch and the experimental production of a pouch-like structure in the male of Trichosurus vulpecula. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales 76, 283–93.Google Scholar
  16. Bolliger, A. (1944). An experiment on the complete transformation of the scrotum into a marsupial pouch in Trichosurus vulpecula. Med. J. Aust., 11, 56–8.Google Scholar
  17. Bolliger, A. (1946). Some aspects of marsupial reproduction. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, 80, 2–13.Google Scholar
  18. Bolliger, A. (1954). Organ transformation induced by oestrogen in an adolescent marsupial (Trichosurus vulpecula) J. Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, 88, 33–9.Google Scholar
  19. Bolliger, A. and Carrodus, A. L. (1938). Spermatorrhoea in Trichosurus vulpecula and other marsupials. Med. J. Aust., 2, 118–9.Google Scholar
  20. Bolliger, A. and Carrodus, A. (1939). Experimental testicular ascent as produced in a marsupial (Trichosurus vulpecula) Aust. N. Z. J. Surg., 9, 155–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bolliger, A. and Carrodus, A. (1940). The effect of testosterone propionate on pouch, scrotum, clitoris and penis of Trichosurus vulpecula. Med. J. Aust., II, 368–73.Google Scholar
  22. Bolliger, A. and Tow, A. J. (1946). Late effects of castration and administration of sex hormones on the male Trichosurus vulpecula. J. Endocrinol., 5: 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. van den Broek, A. J. P. (1910). Untersuchungen Über den Bau der männlichen Geschlechtsorgane der Beuteltiere. Morphol. Jahrb., 41, 347–436.Google Scholar
  24. van den Broek, A. J. P. (1933). Gonaden und Ausführungsgänge. In: Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere (ed. L. Bolk, E. Goppart, E. Kallius and W. Lubosch), Urban and Schwarzenburg, Berlin, pp. 1–154.Google Scholar
  25. Broom, R. (1898). A contribution to the development of the common phalanger. Proc. Linnean Soc. N. S. Wales, 23, 705–29.Google Scholar
  26. Buchanan, G. and Fraser, E. A. (1919). The development of the urogenital system in the Marsupialia, with special reference to Trichosurus vulpecula. J. Anat., 53, 35–95.Google Scholar
  27. de Burlet, H. M. (1921). Zur Entwicklung und Morpholigie des Säugerhodens II Marsupialer. Z. Anat. Enwickl. Abt. 161, 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Burns, R. K. Jr (1939a) The differentiation of sex in the opossum (Didelphys virginiana) and its modification by the male hormone testosterone propionate. J. Morphol., 65, 79–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Burns, R. K. Jr (1939b). Sex differentiation during the early pouch stages of the opossum (Didelphys virginiana) and a comparison of the anatomical changes induced by male and female sex hormones. J. Morphol., 65, 497–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Burns, R. K. Jr (1941). The origin of the rete apparatus in the opossum. Science 94, 142–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carrick, F. N. (1969). Spermatogenesis in the brush-tailed possum. Trichosurus vulpecula (Kerr, 1792) with special reference to the effects of high ambient temperature. B.Sc. Honours Thesis, University of N. S. W., Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  32. Carrick, F. N. (1972). Short range bio-telemetry of temperatures in the Euro (Macropus robustus). Aust. Mammal., 1, 65.Google Scholar
  33. Carrick, F. N. and Cox, R. I. (1973). Testosterone concentrations in the spermatic vein plasma of marsupials. J. Reprod. Fert., 32, 338–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Carrodus, A. and Bolliger, A. (1939). The effect of oestrogenic hormone on the prostate of the marsupial Trichosurus vulpecula. Med. J. Aust., II, 633–41.Google Scholar
  35. Chase, E. B. (1939). The reproductive system of the male opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr and its experimental modification J. Morphol, 65, 215–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Christensen, A. K. and Fawcett, D. W. (1961). The normal fine structure of opossum testicular interstitial cells. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol., 9, 653–70.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cleland, K. W. (1956). Acrosome formation in bandicoot spermiogenesis. Nature, 177, 387–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clermont, Y. (1972). Kinetics of spermatogenesis in mammals: seminiferous epithelium cycle and spermatogonial renewal. Physiol. Rev., 52, 198–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cook, B., Sutterlin, N. S., Graber, S. W. and Nalbandov, A. V. (1974). Gonadal steroid synthesis in the Virginian opossum, Didelphis marsupialis. J. Endocrinol., 61, ix.Google Scholar
  40. Costa, M. T. A., Godinho, H. P. and Cardosa, F. (1975). Unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  41. Courot, M., Hochereau-de Reviers, M-T., and Ortavant, R. (1970). Spermatogenesis. In: The Testis, Vol. 1 (ed. A. D. Johnson, W. R. Gomes and N. L. Van Demark ), Academic Press, New York., pp. 339–432.Google Scholar
  42. Cowper, W. (1699). An account of two glands and their excretory ducts lately discovered in human bodies. Phil. Trans. Roy Soc. 21, 364–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cowper, W. (1704). A letter to Dr. Edward Tyson giving an account of the anatomy of those parts of a male opossum that differ from the female. Phil Trans. Roy, Soc., 24, 1576–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cunningham, D. J. (1882). Report on some points in the anatomy of the Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) Cuscus (Phalagista maculata) and Phascogale (Phascogale calura) collected during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873–1875. Rep. Sci. Res. Voyage H. M. S. Challenger, Zoology, Vol. 5, Part 16, 1–192.Google Scholar
  45. Curtis, G. M. (1918). The morphology of the mammalian seminiferous tubule. Am. J. Anat., 24, 339–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cuvier, G. (1805). Lecons d’Anatomée Comparée, Tome V, Baudouin, Paris.Google Scholar
  47. Disselhorst, R. (1904). Die männlichen Geschlechtsorgane der Monotremen und einiger Marsupialen. Denkschr. Med. Naturw. Ges. Jena, 6, 122–50.Google Scholar
  48. Duesberg, J. (1920). Cytoplasmic structures in the seminal epithelium of the opossum. Cont. Embryol., 9, 49–84.Google Scholar
  49. Einer-Jensen, N. (1974). Local recirculation of 133 Xenon and 85 Krypton to the testes and the caput epididymidis in rats. J Reprod. Fert., 37, 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fawcett, D. W., Neaves, W. B. and Flores, M. N. (1974). Comparative observations on intertubular lymphatics and the organization of the interstitial tissue of the mammalian testis. Biol. Reprod., 9, 500–32.Google Scholar
  51. Finkel, M. P. (1945). The relation of sex hormones to pigmentation and to testis descent in the opossum and ground squirrel. Am. J. Anat., 76, 93–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fordham, M. G. C. (1928). The anatomy of the urogenital organs of the male Myrmecobius fasciatus. J. Morphol. Physiol., 46, 563–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fraser, E. A. (1919). The development of the urogenital system in the Marsupialia, with special reference to Trichosurus vulpecula. J. Anat., 53, 97–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Frith, H. J. and Sharman, G. B. (1964). Breeding in wild populations of the Red Kangaroos Megaleia rufa. C.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Res., 9, 86–114.Google Scholar
  55. F’tirst, C. M. (1880). Ueber die Entwicklung der Samenkörperchen bei den Beuteltheiren, Arch. Mikrosk. Anat., 30, 336–65.Google Scholar
  56. Gilmore, D. P. (169). Seasonal reproductive periodicity in the male Australian Brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). J. Zool. London 157, 75–98.Google Scholar
  57. de Graaf, F. (1668). Tractatus de virorum organis generationi inservientibus Lugd. Batav et Roterod. Hackiana. Translated by H. D. Jocelyn and B. P. Setchell. J. Reprod. Fert. Suppl., 17, 1–76 (1972).Google Scholar
  58. Green. L. M. A. (1963). Interstitial cells in the testis of an Australian phalanger (Trichosurus vulpecula). Aust. J. Exp. Biol., 41, 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Greenwood, A. W. (1923). Marsupial spermatogenesis. Quart. J. Microscop. Sci., 67, 203–18.Google Scholar
  60. Guiler, E. R. (1970). Observations on the Tasmanian Devil Sarcophilus harrisii (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). II. Reproduction, breeding and growth of pouch young. Aust J. Zool., 18, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Guiler, E. R. and Heddle, R. W. L. (1970). Testicular and body temperature in the Tasmanian Devil and three other species of marsupial. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 33, 881–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Guraya, S. S. (1971). Morphological and histochemical changes in the mitochondria during spermiogenesis in the opossum. Acta Anat., 79, 120–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hamilton, D. W. (1972). The mammalian epididymis. In: Reproductive Biology (Ed. H. Balin and S. Glasser ), Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp. 268–337.Google Scholar
  64. Harrison, R. G. (1948). Vascular patterns in the testis, with particular reference to Macropus. Nature, 161, 399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Harrison, R. G. (1949). The comparative anatomy of the blood supply of the mammalian testis. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 119, 325–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harrison, R. G. (1951). Applications of microradiography. In: Microarteriography (ed. A. E. Barclay ). Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 89–90.Google Scholar
  67. Hartmann, C. G. (1952). Possums, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  68. Hearn, J. P. (1975). The role of the pituitary in the reproduction of the male tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. J. Reprod. Fert., 42, 399–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Heddle, R. M. L. and Guiler, E. R. (1970). The form and function of the testicular rete mirabile of marsupials. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 35, 415–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Heller, C. G. and Clermont, Y. (1964). Kinetics of the germinal epithelium in man. Recent Progr. Hormone Res., 20, 545–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hill, J. P. and Hill, W. C. O. (1955). The growth-stages of the pouch-young of the Native Cat (Dasyurus viverrinus) together with observations on the anatomy of the new born young. Trans. Zool. Soc. London. 28, 349–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Holmes, R. S. (1972). Evolution of lactate dehydrogenase genes. FEBS Lett., 28, 51–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Holmes, R. S., Cooper, D. W. and Vanderberg, J. L. (1973). Marsupial and monotreme lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes: phylogeny, ontogeny and homology with eutherian mammals. J. Exp. Zool., 184, 127–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Home, E. (1795). Some observations on the mode of generation of the Kanguroo, with a particular description of the organs themselves. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 85, 221–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Home, E. (1808). As account of some peculiarities in the anatomical structure of the wombat, with observations on the female organs of generation. Phil. Trans. Roy Soc., 98, 304–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Howarth, V. S. (1950). Experimental prostatectomy in a marsupial (Trichosurus vulpecula). Med. J. Aust., II 325–30.Google Scholar
  77. Hruban, Z., Martan, J., Slesers, A., Steiner, D. F., Lubran, M. and Rechcigl, M. Jr (1965). Fine structure of the prostatic epithelium of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr). J. Exp. Zool., 160, 81–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Huckins, C. (1971). The spermatogonial stem cell population in adult rats. I. Their morphology, proliferation and maturation. Anat. Rec., 169, 533–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jacks, F. and Setchell, B. P. (1973). A technique for studying the transfer of substances from venous to arterial blood in the spermatic cord of wallabies and rams. J. Physiol. London. 233, 17–18 P.Google Scholar
  80. de Jongh, F. H., Hey, A. H. and van der Molen, H. J. (1973). Effect of gonadotrophins on the secretion of oestradiol-17ß and testosterone by the rat testis. J. Endocrinol., 57, 277–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jordan, H. E. (1911). The spermatogenesis of the opossum. (Didelphys virginiana) with special reference to the accessory chromosome and the chondriosomes. Arch. Zellforsch., 7, 41–86.Google Scholar
  82. Jost, A. (1953). Problems of fetal endocrinology: The gonadal and hypophyseal hormones. Recent Progr. Hormone Res., 8, 379–418.Google Scholar
  83. Jost, A., Vigier, B., Prépin, J. and Perchellet, J-P. (1973). Studies on sex differentiation in mammals. Recent Prog. Hormone Res., 29, 1–41.Google Scholar
  84. Kaiser, W. (1931). Die Entwicklung des Scrotums bei Didelphis Aurita Wied Morph. Jb, 68, 391–433.Google Scholar
  85. von Korff, K. (1902). Zur Histogenese der Spermien von Phalangista vulpina. Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. Entw. Mech., 60, 232–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lacy, D. (1962). Certain aspects of testis structure and function. Brit. Med. Bull., 18, 205–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lacy, D. (1967). The seminiferous tubule in mammals. Endeavour, 26, 101–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ladman, A. J. (1967). Fine structure of the ductuli efferentes of the opossum. Anat. Rec., 157, 559–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lipsett, M. B. (1970). Steroid secretion by the human testis. In: The Human Testis (ed. E. Rosemberg and C. A. Paulsen ), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 407–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lyne, A. G. and Verhagen, A. M. W. (1957). Growth of the marsupial Trichosurus vulpecula and a comparison with some higher mammals. Growth, 21, 167–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. McCrady, E. (1938). The embryology of the opossum. Am. Anat. Mem., 16, 1–233.Google Scholar
  92. Mackenzie, W. C. and Owen, W. J. (1919). The genito-urinary system in monotremes and marsupials. In: The Comparative Anatomy of Australian Mammals, Part I V, Jenkins, Buxton, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  93. Mann, T. (1964). The Biochemistry of Semen and of the Male Reproductive Tract, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  94. Mann, T. and Lutwak-Mann, C. (1963). Comparative biochemical aspects of animal reproduction. Bull. Acad. R. Med. Belg., 7e series, 3, 563–97.Google Scholar
  95. Marlow, B. J. (1961). Reproductive behaviour of the marsupial mouse Antechinus flavipes (Waterhouse) (Marsupialia) and the development of the pouch young. Aust. J. Zool., 9, 203–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Martan, J. and Allen. J. M. (1965). The cytological and chemical organization of the prostatic epithelium of Didelphis virginiana Kerr. J. Exp. Zool., 159, 209–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Martin, W. and Jones, R. (1834). Notes on the dissection of Azara’s opossum (Didelphis azarae, Temm). Proc Zool. Soc. London., II, 101–4.Google Scholar
  98. Mason, K. and Blackshaw, A. W. (1973). The spermatogenic cycle of the bandicoot, Isoodon macrourus. J. Reprod. Fert., 32, 307–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Maynes, G. M. (1973). Reproduction in the parma wallaby, Macropus parma Waterhouse, Aust. J. Zool., 31, 331–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moore, C. R. (1941). Embryonic differentiation of opossum prostate following castration and responses of the juvenile gland to hormones. Anat. Rec., 80, 315–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Moore, C. R. (1943). Sexual differentation in the opossum after early gonadectomy. J. Exp. Zool., 94, 415–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Moore, C. R. (1950). Studies on sex hormones and sexual differentiation in mammals. Arch. Anat. Microsc. Morphol. Exp., 39, 484–98.Google Scholar
  103. Moore, C. R. and Morgan, C. F. (1943). First response of developing opossum gonads to equine gonadotrophin treatment. Endocrinology, 32, 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Morehead, J. R. and Setchell, B. P. Unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  105. Mykytowycz, R. and Nay, T. (1964). Studies of the cutaneous glands and hair follicles of some species of Macropodidae. C.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Res., 9, 200–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Newsome, A. E. (1965). Reproduction in natural populations of the red kangaroo Megaleia rufa (Desmarest) in Central Australia. Aust. J. Zool., 13, 735–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Newsome, A. E. (1973). Cellular degeneration in the testis of red Kangaroos during hot weather and drought in central Australia. J. Reprod. Fert., Suppl., 19, 191–201.Google Scholar
  108. Ortavant, R., Orgebin, M. C. and Singh, G. (1962). Etude comparative de la durée des phenoménes spermatogénétiques chez les animeau domestiques. In: Symp. Use Radioisotope Anim. Biol. Med. Sci. Mexico 1961. Academic Press, New York, pp. 321–7.Google Scholar
  109. Osgood, W. H. (1921). A monographic study of the American marsupial, Caenolestes. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 207, Zool. Ser., 14, 1–162.Google Scholar
  110. Oudemans, J. T. (1892). Die Accessorischen Geschlechtsdrüsen der Sailgetiere. Natuur. Verh. Holland Maatsch. Wet. Haarlem, 3 Verg. Deel 5, 2de Stuk, 1–96.Google Scholar
  111. Owen, R. (1839–47). Marsupialia. In: Cyclopedia of Anatomy and Physiology (ed. R. B. Todd), Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans and Roberts, London, pp. 257–330.Google Scholar
  112. Owen, R. (1868). On the Anatomy of Vertebrates, Vol. III, Longmans, Green, London.Google Scholar
  113. Painter, T. S. (1922). Studies in mammalian spermatogenesis. I. The spermatogenesis of the opossum (Didelphys virginiana).J. Exp. Zool., 35, 13–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pavaux, C. (1962). L’appareil urinaire et genital mâle de Macropus ruficollis Benetti. Mammalia, 26, 72–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Phillips, D. M. (1970). Development of spermatozoa in the Wooly Opossum with special reference to the shaping of the sperm head. J. Ultrastruct. Res, 33, 369–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pocock, R. 1. (1926). The external characters of Thylacinus, Sarcophilus and some related marsupials. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1926, 1037–84.Google Scholar
  117. Poole, W. E. (1973). A study of breeding in grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus Shaw and M. fulginosus (Desmarest) in central New South Wales. Aust. J. Zool., 21, 183–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Regaud, C. (1901). Etudes sur la structure des tubes séminifères et sur la sperma-togenèse chez les mammiferes. Arch. Anat. Microscop, 4, 101–155, 291–380.Google Scholar
  119. Rodger, J. C. and Hughes, R. L. (1973). Studies of the accessory glands of male marsupials. Aust. J. Zool. 21, 303–20.Google Scholar
  120. Rodger, J. C. and White, I. G. (1974a). Carbohydrates of the prostate of two Australian marsupials, Trichosurus vulpecula and Megaleia rufa. J. Reprod. Fert., 38, 267–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rodger, J. C. and White, I. G. (1974b). Sugars of the accessory sexual secretions of males of marsupial and eutherian species. Proc. Aust. Soc. Reprod. Biol. 6th Annual Conference, Abstract No. 1.Google Scholar
  122. Rodger, J. C. and White, I. G. (1974c). Free N-acetylglucosamine in marsupial semen. J. Reprod. Fert., 39, 383–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rodger, J. C. and White, I. G. (1975). Electroejaculation of Australian marsupials and analysis of the sugars in the seminal plasma from three macropod species. J. Reprod. Fert., 43, 233–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Roosen-Runge, E. C. and Giesel, C. 0. (1950). Quantitative studies on spermatogenesis in the albino rat. Am. J. Anat., 17, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rotenberg, D. (1929). Notes on the male generative apparatus of Tarsipes spenserae. J. Roy. Soc. W. Australia, 15, 9–14.Google Scholar
  126. Rubin, D. (1943). Embryonic differentiation of Cowper’s and Bartholin’s glands of the opossum following castration and ovariotomy. J. Exp. Zool., 94, 463–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rubin, D. (1944). The relation of hormones to the development of Cowper’s and Bartholin’s glands in the opossum (Didelphys virginiana). J. Morphol., 74, 213–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sadleir, R. M. F. S. (1965). Reproduction in two species of Kangaroo (Macropus robustus and Megaleia rufa) and in the arid Pilbara region of Western Australia. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 145, 239–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sapsford, C. S. and Rae, C. A. (1969). Ultrastructural studies on Sertoli cells and spermatids in the Bandicoot and ram during the movement of mature spermatids into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. Aust. J. Zool., 17, 415–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sapsford, C. S., Rae, C. A. and Cleland, K. W. (1967). Ultrastructural studies on spermatids and Sertoli cells during early spermiogenesis in the bandicoot Perameles nasuta Geoffroy (Marsupialia). Aust. J. Zool, 15, 881–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sapsford, C. S. Rae, C. A. and Cleland, K. W. (1969a). Ultrastructural studies on maturing spermatids and on Sertoli cells in the bandicoot Perameles nasuta Geoffroy Marsupialia. Aust. J. Zool., 17, 195–292.Google Scholar
  132. Sapsford, C. S., Rae, C. A. and Cleland, K. W. (1969b). The fate of residual bodies and degenerating germ cells and the lipid cycle in Sertoli cells in the bandicoot Perameles nasuta Geoffroy (Marsupialia). Aust. J. Zool., 17, 729–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sapsford, C. S., Rae, C. A. and Cleland, K. W. (1970). Ultrastructural studies on the development and form of the principal piece sheath of the bandicoot spermatozoon. Aust. J. Zool., 18, 21–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Setchell, B. P. (1970a). Testicular blood supply, lymphatic drainage and secretion of fluid. In: The Testis, Vol. 1 (ed. A. D. Johnson, W. R. Gomes, and N. L. Van Demark ), Academic Press, New York, pp. 101–239.Google Scholar
  135. Setchell, B. P. (1970b). Fluid secretion by the testes of an Australian marsupial Macropus eugenii. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 36, 411–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Setchell, B. P. (1973). Venous to arterial transfer in the spermatic cord. Res. Reprod., 5 (5), 3–4.Google Scholar
  137. Setchell, B. P. (1974). Secretions of the testis and epididymis. J. Reprod. Fert., 37, 165–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Setchell, B. P. and Carrick, F. N. (1973). Spermatogenesis in some Australian marsupials. Aust. J. Zool., 21, 491–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Setchell, B. P. and Hinks, N. T. (1969). Absence of countercurrent exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen foils or glucose between the arterial and venous blood in the spermatic cords of rams and two marsupials (Macropus eugenii and Megaleia rufa). J. Reprod. Fert., 20, 179–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Setchell, B. P. and Hinton, B. T. (1973). Action of gonadotrophins on the testis in mammals. Bibliog. Reprod., 21, 817–26, 959–67.Google Scholar
  141. Setchell, B. P. and Thorburn, G. D. (1969). The effect of local heating on blood flow through the testes of some Australian marsupials. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 31, 675–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Setchell, B. P. and Thorburn, G. D. (1970). The effect of artificial cryptorchidism on the testis and on testicular blood flow in an Australian marsupial, Macropus eugenii. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 38, 705–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Setchell, B. P. and Waites, G. M. H. (1969). Pulse attenuation and countercurrent heat exchange in the internal spermatic artery of some Australian marsupials J. Reprod. Fert., 20, 165–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Setchell, B. P., Waites, G. M. H. and Lindner, H. R. (1965). Effect of undernutrition on testicular blood flow and metabolism and the output of testosterone in the ram. J. Reprod. Fert., 9, 149–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sharman, G. B. (1959a). Marsupial reproduction. Monogr. Biol., 8, 332–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sharman, G. B. (1959b). Some effects of X-rays on dividing cells in the testis and bone marrow of the marsupial Potorous tridactylus. Int. J. Rad. Biol., 2, 115–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sharman, G. B. (1961). The mitotic chromosomes of marsupials and their bearing on taxonomy and phylogeny. Aust. J. Zool., 9, 38–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sharman, G. B. and Calaby, J. H. (1964). Reproductive behaviour in the red kangaroo, Megaleia rufa in captivity. C.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Res., 9: 58–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sharman, G. B., Frith, H. J. and Calaby, J. H. (1964). Growth of the pouch young, tooth eruption and age determination in the red kangaroo, Megaleia rufa. C.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Res., 9, 20–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sharman, G. B. and Pilton, P. E. (1964). The life history and reproduction of the red kangaroo (Melgaeia rufa).Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 142, 29–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Sharman, G. B., Robinson, E. S., Walton, S. M. and Berger, P. J. (1970). Sex chromosomes and reproductive anatomy of some intersexual marsupials. J. Reprod. Fert., 21. 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Smith, M. J. Brown, B. K. and Frith, H. J. (1969). Breeding of the brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr) in New South Wales. C.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Res., 14, 181–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Smith, R. F. C. (1969). Studies on the marsupial glider Schoinobates volans (Kerr) Aust. J. Zool., 17, 625–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Steinberger, E. (1971). The hormonal control of spermatogenesis. Physiol. Rev., 51, 1–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Steinberger, E. and Steinberger, A. (1974). Hormonal control of testicular function. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section 7, Endocrinology, Vol. IV, Part 2 (ed. E. Knobil and W. H. Sawyer ), American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 325–45.Google Scholar
  156. Stirling, E. C. (1891). Description of a new genus and species of Marsupialia ’Notoryctes typhlops’. Roy. Soc. S. Australia Trans. Proc. Rep., 14, 254–87.Google Scholar
  157. Suzuki, Y. and Eto, T. (1962). Andogens in testicular venous blood in the adult rat. Endocrinol Japon., 9, 277–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sweet, G. (1897). The skin, hair and reproductive organs of Notoryctes. Quart. J. Microscop. Sci., 51, 325–44.Google Scholar
  159. Swierstra, E. E. (168). Cytology and duration of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium of the boar, duration of spermatozoon transit through the epididymis. Anat. Rec., 161, 272–85.Google Scholar
  160. Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H. (1968). Reproduction and post-natal development in the marsupial Bettongia lesueur (Quoy and Gaimard). Aust. J. Zool., 16, 577–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Tyson, E. (1704). Carigueya seu marsupiale Americum masculum. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 24, 1565–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Vinson, G. P. and Phillips, J. G. (1969). Formation of testosterone by a special zone in the adrenal cortex of the Brush Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 13, 538–9.Google Scholar
  163. Waites, G. M. H. (1970). Temperature regulation and the testis. In: The Testis, Vol. 1. (ed. A. D. Johnson, W. R. Gomes and N. L. Van Demark ), Academic Press, New York, pp. 241–79.Google Scholar
  164. Waites, G. M. H. and Moule, G. R. (1960). Blood pressure in the internal spermatic artery of the ram. J. Reprod. Fert., 1, 223–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Waites, G. M. H., Setchell, B. P. and Quinlan, D. (1973). Effect of local heating of the scrotum, testes and epididymides of rats on cardiac output and regional blood flow. J. Reprod. Fert., 34, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wilkens, H., Regelson, W. and Hoffmeister, F. S. (1962). The physiologic importance of pusatile bloodflow. New Eng. J. Med., 267, 443–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Woolley, P. (1964). Reproduction in Antechinus spp. and other Dasyurid marsupials Symp. Zool. Soc. London, 15, 281–94.Google Scholar
  168. Woolley, P. (1975). The seminiferous tubules in Dasyurid marsupials. J. Reprod. Fert., 45, 255–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Young, A. H. (1879). On the male generative organs of the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). J. Anat. Physiol., 13, 305–17.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. P. Setchell

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations