This chapter discusses both permanent and disconnectable joints. The most common permanent joints are made by welding, sometimes with a hot flame, more usually with an electric arc. The workpiece usually forms one of the electrodes; the other is guided by the welder and is either of tungsten, which is not intended to melt, or of filler material which forms part of the joint. Other methods use local heating within the joint region, sometimes combined with high pressure, the heat source being electrical resistance, friction, electron beam, laser light, impact or ultrasonic vibration.
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