In the Restoration period that followed the dictatorship of Sulla the foremost need of the Roman Republic was to rest and recover from the convulsions of the previous ten years. The greatest danger of the moment lay in the possible recrudescence of the civil wars that had recently paralysed the senatorial government. In view of this peril the restored senatorial aristocracy was more than ever averse from military adventures abroad, with their concomitant military usurpations at home. Nevertheless the years after the death of Sulla were an age of recurrent warfare. The hostilities were largely an aftermath of the troubles of the preceding decade; but fresh conflicts arose on borderlands of the Empire where frontiers were still ragged and undefined. Sertorius was in revolt in Spain, Thracian tribes were pressing on the frontiers of Macedon (p. 278), piracy was rampant and demanded drastic measures, and Mithridates started once again on the warpath.
KeywordsPatrician Family Habeas Corpus Political Reconciliation Roman Province Restoration Period
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Notes and References
- On the campaigns of Serviiius see H. A. Ormerod, IRS 1922, 35 ff.;Google Scholar
- D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor (1950), 287 ff.Google Scholar
- On Pompey’s campaign see H. A. Ormerod, Liverpool Annals of Arch. 1923, 46 ff. The nature of his command is uncertain; probably it was an imperium infinitum by sea, but by land it was equal (aequum) to that of any provincial governor for 50 miles inland from the coast. Cf. Velleius, ii. 31. For a revival of the view that it was imperium majus see Sh. Jameson, Historia, 1970, 539 ff. On his settlement see A. H. M. Jones, Cities of E. Rom Prov. 202 ff.Google Scholar
- On Pompey’s settlement of the East see Plut. Pomp. 38; Appian, Mithr. 114–15; Dio Cassius, xxxvii, 7a. Cf. A. H. M. Jones, Cities E. Rom. Prov. 157 ff., 202 ff., 258 ff.; D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor, ch. xv; A. J. Marshall, YRS 1968, 103 ff.; F. P. Rizzo, Le fonti per la storia della conquista pompeiana della Siria (1963).Google Scholar
- On Parthia see W. W. Tarn, CAH, ix, ch. xiv; N. C. Debevoise, A Political History of Parthia (1938);Google Scholar
- M. A. R. Colledge, The Parthians (1967). On the Parthian horsemen, skilled in the Parthian shot’, fired over the crupper as they pretended to flee, see Tarn, Hellenistic Military and Naval Developments (1930), 73 ff.Google Scholar
- On the implications of Carrhae see D. Timpe, Museum Helveticum 1962, 194 ff.Google Scholar