The kinds of conflict situations of interest to economists are almost never without some co-operative elements. In the language of the last chapter, the two-person zero-sum game model is hardly ever applicable in economics. While other social sciences have found this model useful, years ago, as a first approximation, more recent work has denied its applicability to problems of international relations , or strategic choice . Especially in these contexts, of nuclear war between two countries say, the pay-offs are seldom symmetric in any possible conceptualisation; what the United States will lose in any exchange of missiles is not the negative of the Soviet utility gain.
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