Discrete-time Systems

  • P. F. Blackman


State-variable analysis has been developed entirely in terms of continuous systems, but the same principles and methods can be applied to discrete-time systems. In such systems, variables may change only at discrete intervals of time, the system being analogous to a difference equation. It may happen that portions of a system contain variables that change continuously, while other portions operate on a discrete basis. This situation arises when a continuous system such as a conventional servomechanism is operated by sampling a control signal, or when control information is obtained from a computer. Whatever the details of the system may be, the variables can be represented by a state vector, and the general methods developed previously can be used to investigate the system behaviour in terms of state-variable concepts similar to those for continuous systems.


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  1. Freeman, H. F., Discrete Time Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965).Google Scholar
  2. Jury, E. I., The Theory and Application of the z-transform Method (Wiley, New York, 1964).Google Scholar
  3. Kuo, B. C., Discrete-data Control Systems (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1970).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© P. F. Blackman 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. F. Blackman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringImperial College of Science and TechnologyLondonUK

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