Some Consequences

  • Harlan P. Banks
Part of the Fundamentals of Botany Series book series (FOBS)


In this chapter an effort will be made to visualize a few significant events in the Middle and Late Devonian. These events occurred during the time interval from 370 (start of the Middle Devonian) to 345 (start of the Mississippian) million years ago (Table 4-1). This is the second 25-million-year episode in the evolution of land plants. We begin with a brief resume of the fate of the ten groups that were present in Emsian strata, shown graphically in Fig. 5-1.


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Suggestions for Further Reading

  1. Arnold, C. A., “Observations on Fossil Plants from the Devonian of Eastern North America: IV, Plant Remains from the Catskill Delta Deposits of Northern Pennsylvania and Southern New York,” Contributions of the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 5, (1939), pp. 271–314. A demonstration of heterospory in Archaeopteris.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, C. B., “Reconstructions of Archaeopteris and Further Consideration of Its Phylogenetic Position,” American Journal of Botany, 49 (1962), pp. 373–382. Contains drawings of plant of Archaeopteris.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carluccio, L. M., F. M. Hueber, and H. P. Banks, “Archaeopteris macilenta, Anatomy and Morphology of Its Frond,” American Journal of Botany, 53 (1966), pp. 719–730. Shows anatomy of branches of Archaeopteris.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chaloner, W. G., “Spores and Land Plant Evolution,” Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 1 (1967), pp. 83–94. Shows parallelism between evolution of spores and that of macrofossils.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaloner, W. G., and J. M. Pettitt, “A Seed Megaspore from the Devonian of Canada,” Palaeontology 7 (1964), pp. 29–36. Discusses a megaspore from a sporangium that bears one tetrad only.Google Scholar
  6. Pettitt, J. M., and C. B. Beck, “Archaeosperma Arnoldii — A Cupulate Seed from the Upper Devonian of North America,” Contributions of the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 22 (1968), pp. 139–154. A description of the first seed found in the Devonian.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harlan P. Banks
    • 1
  1. 1.Cornell UniversityUSA

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