Metallurgical and Residual Stress Investigations of Explosively Welded Specimens
Explosive welding is a method which has already gained many applications such as the cladding of pressure vessels, heat exchanger tubes and chemical reactor tubes. The main advantage of this method is that metals can be welded which cannot be bonded by fusion welding, either because of too great differences in their melting points or because of the creation of intermetallics in the bond zone. Explosive cladding can also be achieved within great areas, up to 5 m × 2 m; theoretically unlimited, if there were no environmental limitations due to noise. Because of this, most of the experiments are performed in quarries. In recent years much work has been performed in cladding different materials and different shapes1–5, and the mechanism of welding was also extensively investigated1–4,6,7. Much work is concerned with the joint efficiency and the strengths achieved. Since the material is subjected to changes due to shockwaves, such as intense plastic deformation, phase changes, and large mechanical twinning2,4,8,9 near the bond zone, examinations of the bonding strength are of interest.
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