Pragmatic Analysis

  • Robert J. Ackermann
Part of the Problems in Philosophy book series (PRPH)


To this point, we have not considered iterated knowledge operators as we did iterated belief operators earlier. Consider the following formulae, where p abstracts some factual sentence:
  1. (1)


  2. (2)


Clearly (1) seems to be true, but (2) is the subject of considerable controversy. It may be useful to begin a discussion by indicating the connection between Ideal Analysis and an acceptance of (1) and (2) as conditions on knowledge.


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Copyright information

© Robert John Ackermann 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Ackermann
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

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