Advertisement

The Victory of the Second Eleven

  • Michael Kinnear

Abstract

One of the most striking things about the 1922 election was that such a confused campaign had clear and lasting significance to each major party. Four independents and Constitutionalists were in effect Liberals, three more were Conservatives and one was Labour. Thus the operating strength of the parties was Conservatives 346, Labour 143 and Liberals 120. This gave the Conservatives a working majority of 77. Labour solidified its position as the official Opposition, and the Conservative opponents of the old Coalition kept office. While the Conservatives had just a third of the votes, their majority of seats helped determine the electoral future of Britain. Also the election pushed Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain to prominence, as both owed their rapid promotion in 1923 to the fact that numerous Conservatives better known than they were, were out of office when Bonar Law retired in May. The Liberals, in contrast with the other two parties, received a setback, for they remained divided over leadership. While the election helped settle the question of leadership in the Conservative and Labour Parties, it accentuated the Liberal difficulties, and hence hastened the party’s decline. This chapter considers the effect of the 1922 crisis on the development of the three parties, and also examines briefly the change in political attitudes during 1923 which made coalitions less likely than they had been before the election.

Keywords

Labour Party Liberal Party National Party Conservative Party Rent Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Conservatives won because of Liberal splits in: East Ham North, Portsmouth Central, Sunderland (1) and Sudbury. Labour won because of Liberal splits in: Bermondsey West, Bradford East, Cannock, Clay Cross, Don Valley, Hanley, Leicester West, Newcastle East and West and Walthamstow North.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nation (25 November 1922) 308; Pall Mall Gazette (14 April 1923).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Torbay Express (27 October 1922); Birkenhead Advertiser (28 October and 2 November 1922); Manchester Guardian (19 March 1921 and 18 January and 8 and 10 November 1922).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liberal Magazine (June 1922) 355, 358; (January 1923) 17; (August 1923) 453.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    National Review (February 1922) 784.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marchioness Curzon, Reminiscences, 170; Gleanings and Memoranda (October 1923) 351–2.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Quoted by A. G. Gardiner in Certain People of Importance, 138; Salvidge, Salvidge of Liverpool, 239.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blake, Unknown Prime Minister, 494; Wrench, Geoffrey Damson and our Times, 215.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eyck, Weimar Republic, I 231; The Times (27 October 1922).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    The House of Lords decided in favour of the tenants in the decision of Kerr v. Bryde; cf. Journals of the House of Lords (3 November 1922) 388.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    5 H.C. Debates, 164, cols 860 and 864 [28 May 1923].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fitzroy, Diary, II 795–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Annual Register, 1923, 94.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Austen Chamberlain Papers, AC/35/2/2 and 11a [Wor-thington-Evans to Chamberlain, 22 May 1923; memorandum by Chamberlain, 23 May 1923].Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jenkins, Asquith, 496.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liberal Magazine (March 1923) 132.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ibid. (January 1923)11.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    The Times (2 December 1925); Liberal Magazine (January 1923) 12.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liberal Magazine (January 1923) 12; (April 1923) 210; Chronicle (7 and 8 November 1922); C. P. Scott’s Diary, ed. Wilson, 437, 8 March 1923.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liberal Magazine (July 1923) 383, 422–3; Kenworthy, Sailors, Statesmen and Others, 222; Hyde, Strong for Service, 113.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Edinburgh Evening News (14 February 1923); C. P. Scotf’s Diary, ed. Wilson, 439–41 (9 March 1923); Liberal Magazine (May 1919) 213.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Letters from the Earl of Oxford and Asquith to a Friend, II 37.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. P. Scott’s Diary, ed. Wilson, 437 (29 January 1923); Liberal Magazine (June 1923) 357.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liberal Magazine (June 1923) 354–7.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ibid. (March 1923) 123; (July 1923) 421–2; Letters from the Earl of Oxford and Asquith to a Friend, II 84–5.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nation (29 May 1920) 273.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Foreign Affairs (October 1928) 59.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Michael Kinnear 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Kinnear

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations