End Conditions

  • John Pickford
Part of the Macmillan Civil Engineering Hydraulics book series (CEH)


In Chapter 3 we found that sudden closure of a valve causes a wave of pressure intensity given by equation (3.7) or (3.8) to move upstream with velocity a. We also found that two counter-moving waves, the F-wave and the f-wave, co-exist in a pipe when there is a change of flow.


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  1. 1.
    Contractor, D. N.: ‘The reflection of waterhammer pressure wave from minor losses,’ J. bas. Engng, Trans. Am. Soc. mech. Engrs, (1965), 87, pp. 445–452.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Addison, H.: A treatise of applied hydraulics (Chapman and Hall, 5th Ed., 1964).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Binnie, A. M.: ‘The effect of friction on surges in long pipelines,’ Q, J1 Mech. appl. Math., (1951), 4, pp. 330–343.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gibson, A. H.: The Mechanical properties of fluids (Blackie, 1923).Google Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Stephenson, D.: ‘Waterhammer charts including fluid friction,’ J. Hydraul Div., Proc. Am. Soc. civ. Engrs, (1966), 92, HY5, pp. 71–94.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© John Pickford 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Pickford
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringLoughborough University of TechnologyLoughboroughUK

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