In the late Middle Ages (ca. 1350–1500), European society entered upon a time of troubles which severely affected the character of its civilization. The population fell drastically, and the economy entered upon a period of protracted slump. Numerous and destructive wars erupted all over Europe. The institutions, the ways of doing things, which had apparently worked so well in the thir-teenth and earlier centuries, seemed no longer able to cope with the mounting problems of the age.
KeywordsEurope Amid Trench Defend Stake
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