The Gospel of Inclusivity and Cathedral Visitors

  • Leslie J. Francis
  • Mandy Robbins
  • Jennie Annis


This chapter draws on the insights of Francis’s notion of the theology of individual differences and the insights of Jungian psychological type theory to examine the psychological profile of those who access cathedrals as visitors. Building on two smaller studies of cathedral visitors, the chapter draws on a database of 2,412 visitors to St Davids Cathedral in west Wales (1,058 men and 1,354 women). The cathedral attracts more introverts than extraverts, more sensers than intuitives, more judgers than perceivers, and slightly more thinkers than feelers. The data demonstrate that the psychological type profile of cathedral visitors is significantly different from the wider population from which they are drawn and that this is the case for both men and women. Comparisons with the population norms demonstrate that extraverts and perceivers are significantly underrepresented among cathedral visitors. The implications of these findings are discussed both for maximizing the visitor experiences of those already attracted to attend the cathedral and for discovering ways of attracting more extraverts and perceivers to explore this particular aspect of their cultural and religious heritage.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Apostolopoulos, Y, Leivadi, S, & Yiannakis, A. (Eds.). (2001). The sociology of tourism: Theoretical and empirical investigations. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Archbishops’ Commission on Cathedrals (1994). Heritage and renewal. London, United Kingdom: Church House.Google Scholar
  3. Bigelow, E. D., Fitzgerald, R., Busk, P., Girault, E., & Avis, J. (1988). Psychological characteristics of Catholic sisters: Relationships between the MBTI and other measures. Journal of Psychological Type, 14, 32–36.Google Scholar
  4. Burton, L., Francis, L. J., & Robbins, M. (2010). Psychological type profile of Methodist circuit ministers in Britain: Similarities to and differences from Anglican clergy. Journal of Empirical Theology, 23, 64–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cabral, G. (1984). Psychological types in a Catholic convent: Applications to community living and congregational data. Journal of Psychological Type, 8, 16–22.Google Scholar
  6. Clarke, P. B. (Ed.). (2009). The Oxford handbook of the sociology of religions. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Craig, C. L., Duncan, B., & Francis, L. J. (2006). Psychological type preferences of Roman Catholic priests in the United Kingdom. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 27, 157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Craig, C. L., Francis, L. J., Bailey, J., & Robbins, M. (2003). Psychological types in Church in Wales congregations. The Psychologist in Wales, 15, 18–21.Google Scholar
  9. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delis-Bulhoes, V. (1990). Jungian psychological types and Christian belief in active church members. Journal of Psychological Type, 20, 25–33.Google Scholar
  11. English Tourist Board (1979). English cathedrals and tourism: Problems and opportunities. London, United Kingdom: English Tourist Board.Google Scholar
  12. Falk, J., & Storksdiech, M. (2010). Science learning in a leisure setting. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47, 194–212.Google Scholar
  13. Francis, L. J. (2005). Faith and psychology: Personality, religion and the individual. London, United Kingdom: Darton, Longman and Todd.Google Scholar
  14. Francis, L. J., Craig, C. L., & Hall, G. (2008). Psychological type and attitude toward Celtic Christianity among committed churchgoers in the United Kingdom: An empirical study. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 23, 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Francis, L. J., Craig, C. L., Whinney, M., Tilley D., & Slater, P. (2007). Psychological typology of Anglican clergy in England: Diversity, strengths and weaknesses in ministry. International Journal of Practical Theology, 11, 266–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Francis, L. J., Duncan, B., Craig, C. L., & Luffman, G. (2004). Type patterns among Anglican congregations in England. Journal of Adult Theological Education, 1(1), 65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Francis, L. J., Mansfield, S., Williams, E., & Village, A. (2010). Applying psychological type theory to cathedral visitors: A case study of two cathedrals in England and Wales, Visitor Studies. 13, 175–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Francis, L. J., Payne, V. J., & Jones, S. H. (2001). Psychological types of male Anglican clergy in Wales. Journal of Psychological Type, 56, 19–23.Google Scholar
  19. Francis, L. J., Robbins, M., & Astley, J. (2005). Fragmented faith? Exposing the fault-lines in the Church of England. Carlisle, United Kingdom: Paternoster.Google Scholar
  20. Francis, L. J., Robbins, M., & Craig, C. L. (2007). Two different operationalisations of psychological type: Comparing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter. In R. A. Degregorio (Ed.), New developments in psychological testing (pp. 119–138). New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Francis, L. J., Robbins, M., & Craig, C. L. (2011). The psychological type profile of Anglican churchgoers in England: Compatible or incompatible with their clergy? International Journal of Practical Theology, 15, 243–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Francis, L. J., Robbins, M., Williams, A., & Williams, R. (2007). All types are called, but some are more likely to respond: The psychological type profile of rural Anglican churchgoers. Rural Theology, 5, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Francis, L. J., & Village, A. (2008). Preaching with all our souls. London, United Kingdom: Continuum.Google Scholar
  24. Francis, L. J., Williams, E., Annis, J., & Robbins, M. (2008). Understanding cathedral visitors: Psychological type and individual differences in experience and appreciation. Tourism Analysis, 13, 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gerhardt, R. (1983). Liberal religion and personality type. Research in Psychological Type, 6, 47–53.Google Scholar
  26. Goldsmith, M., & Wharton, M. (1993). Knowing me: Knowing you. London, United Kingdom: SPCK.Google Scholar
  27. Gountas, J. Y., & Gountas, S. (2000). A new psychographic segmentation method using Jungian MBTI variables in the tourism industry. Tourism Analysis, 5, 151–156.Google Scholar
  28. Gountas, J. Y., & Gountas, S. (2007). Personality orientations, emotional states, customer satisfaction, and intention to repurchase. Journal of Business Research, 60, 72–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gutic, J., Caie, E., & Clegg, A. (2010). In search of heterotopia? Motivations of visitors to an English Cathedral. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12, 750–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harbaugh, G. L. (1984). The person in ministry: Psychological type and the seminary. Journal of Psychological Type, 8, 23–32.Google Scholar
  31. Holsworth, T. E. (1984). Type preferences among Roman Catholic seminarians. Journal of Psychological Type, 8, 33–35.Google Scholar
  32. Hughes, K., Bond, N., & Ballantyne, R. (2013). Designing and managing interpretive experiences at religious sites: Visitors’ perceptions of Canterbury Cathedral. Tourism Management, 36, 210–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jackson, R. H., & Hudman, L. (1995). Pilgrimage tourism and English cathedrals: The role of religion in travel. The Tourist Review, 50, 40–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jung, C. G. (1971). Psychological types: The collected works, volume 6. London, United Kingdom: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  35. Kay, W. K., Francis, L. J., & Craig, C. L. (2008). Psychological type preferences of male British Assemblies of God Bible College students: Tough-minded or tender-hearted? Journal of the European Pentecostal Theological Association, 28, 6–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Keirsey, D. (1998). Please understand me: 2. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis.Google Scholar
  37. Keirsey, D., & Bates, M. (1978). Please understand me. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis.Google Scholar
  38. Kelly, K. R., & Jugovic, H. (2001). Concurrent validity of the online version of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter 11. Journal of Career Assessment, 9, 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kendall, E. (1998). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Step 1 manual supplement. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kozak M., & Decrop, A. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of tourist behaviours. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. McCaulley, M. H. (1985). The selection ratio type table: A research strategy for comparing type distributions. Journal of Psychological Type, 10, 46–56.Google Scholar
  42. Myers, I. B., & McCaulley, M. H. (1985). Manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  43. Nelstrop, L., & Percy, M. (2008). Evaluating Fresh Expressions: Explorations in emerging church. Norwich, United Kingdom: Canterbury Press.Google Scholar
  44. Quinn, M. T., Lewis, R. J., & Fischer, K. L. (1992). A cross-correlation of the Myers-Briggs and Keirsey instruments. Journal of College Student Development, 33, 279–280.Google Scholar
  45. Rehak, M. C. (1998). Identifying the congregation’s corporate personality. Journal of Psychological Type, 44, 39–44.Google Scholar
  46. Ross, C. F. J. (1993). Type patterns among active members of the Anglican church: Comparisons with Catholics, Evangelicals and clergy. Journal of Psychological Type, 26, 28–35.Google Scholar
  47. Ross, C. F. J. (1995). Type patterns among Catholics: Four Anglophone congregations compared with Protestants, Francophone Catholics and priests. Journal of Psychological Type, 33, 33–41.Google Scholar
  48. Ross, G. F. (1998). The psychology of tourism (2nd ed.). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Hospitality Press.Google Scholar
  49. Shackley, M. (2002). Space, sanctity and service: The English cathedral as heterotopia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4, 345–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tucker, I. F., & Gillespie, B. V. (1993). Correlations among three measures of personality type. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77, 650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Voase, R. (2007). Visiting a cathedral: The consumer psychology of a ‘rich experience.’ International Journal of Heritage Studies, 13, 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Williams, T. M. (2007). Evaluating the visitor experience: The case of Chester Cathedral. Unpublished MA dissertation. University of Chester.Google Scholar
  53. Willis, K. G. (1994). Paying for heritage: What price for Durham Cathedral? Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 37, 267–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Winter, M., & Gasson, R. (1996). Pilgrimage and tourism: Cathedral visiting in contemporary England. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 2, 172–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Leslie J. Francis 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie J. Francis
  • Mandy Robbins
  • Jennie Annis

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations