Advertisement

Petropavlovsk, Japan, and After

  • Andrew C. Rath
Chapter

Abstract

The seeds of an Allied defeat at Petropavlovsk took root on the afternoon of September 1, 1854, and this timing was especially sudden. Allied warships led by the frigate Forte had bombarded two Russian batteries at Shakov and Koshka into temporary silence and had taken a third, Krasny Yar, by landing sailors and marines. Even one of the largest Russian emplacements, the five guns entrenched on Point Shakov at the base of a rocky hill, simply could not match the broadsides of the Forte and its English peers, the President and Pique. These warships were able to hurl hundreds of rounds against the battery. Allied shots rained rocky fragments from a cliff behind the Russian battery down on its gun crews, wounding their commander and eventually rendering the cannon impossible to man.1

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Aleksandr Pavlovich Arbuzov [Russian language], “The Defense of the Petropavlovsk Port against the Anglo-French Squadron in 1854 (from the notes of an eyewitness and participant).” Russkaya Starina, Vol. 1, No. 2 (1870), 302Google Scholar
  2. Vasily Stepanovich Zavoyko and Aleksandr A. Preobrazhensky [Russian language], “Report of the Kamchatkan Military Governor about the Attack of an Anglo-French Squadron on Petropavlovsk Port in 1854.” Historic Archive of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of History, Vol. 7 (1951), 106.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Nikolay Moritsevich O’Rourke, trans. Aleksandr O’Rourke, [Russian language], The Notes of a Participant in the Circumnavigation of the Frigate Aurora (St. Petersburg, Russia: Elmore Publishing, 2011), 143 and 145.Google Scholar
  4. 36.
    Boris P. Polevoi [Russian language], National Heroes: The Heroic Defence of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii in 1854: Collection of Memoirs, Articles, Letters, and Official Documents (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii: Dalipzdan, 1979), 151.Google Scholar
  5. 61.
    William Petty Ashcroft, “The Reminiscences of William Petty Ashcroft (Part VII).” The Naval Review, Vol. 53, No. 3 (July, 1965), 277.Google Scholar
  6. 74.
    Nikolay Fesun [Russian language], “From the Notes of an Officer Who Served Aboard the Frigate Aurora.” Morskoi Sbornik, No. 10 (1860), 4.Google Scholar
  7. 75.
    Konstantin Pavlovich Pilkin [Russian language], “The Details of the Battle at Petropavlovsk on August 24 (September 5), 1854.” Morskoi Sbornik, Vol. 343, No. 5 (1911), 20.Google Scholar
  8. 101.
    Boris P. Polevoi [Russian language], Defenders of the Fatherland: The Heroic Defence of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii in 1854: Collection of Memoirs, Articles, Letters, and Official Document, 2nd ed. (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii: Dalipzdan, 1989), 154.Google Scholar
  9. 108.
    The boy survived, however, after a Russian officer reportedly instructed him (in English) to “put up your sword, my boy; this is no place of you. Run back to your boat as fast as you can.” Francis Marx, The Pacific and the Amoor: Naval, Military and Diplomatic Operations from Fraser’s Magazine (London, UK: Robert Hardwicke, 1861), 7–8.Google Scholar
  10. 109.
    David Lawrence Gregg and Pauline King, eds., The Diaries ofDavid Lawrence Gregg: An American Diplomat in Hawaii 1853–1858 (Honolulu, Hawai’i: Hawaiian Historical Society, 1982), 200.Google Scholar
  11. 110.
    Thierry Mormanne, “La Prise de Possession de l’î le d’Urup par la Flotte Anglo- Fran ç aise en 1855.” Cipango: Cahiers d’ études Japonaises, No. 11 (2004), 212.Google Scholar
  12. 126.
    FO 17/221 [June 9 and 24, 1854] (NA) and William G. Beasley, Great Britain and the Opening of Japan, 1834–1858 (London, UK: Luzac, 1951. Re-issued in paperback by Routledge, 1995), 100.Google Scholar
  13. 127.
    Pamela Statham-Drew, James Stirling: Admiral and Founding Governor of Western Australia (Crawley, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press, 2003), 482.Google Scholar
  14. 131.
    William McOmie, The Opening of Japan, 1853–1855 (Kent, UK: Global Oriental, 2006), 20.Google Scholar
  15. 132.
    George A. Lensen, The Russian Push toward Japan: Russo -Japanese Relations 1697–1875 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), 318.Google Scholar
  16. 135.
    Mitani Hiroshi and Nihon R. Gakkai, eds., trans. David Noble, Escape from Impasse: the Decision to Open Japan (Tokyo, Japan: International House of Japan, 2006), 226.Google Scholar
  17. 138.
    Grace Fox, “The Anglo-Japanese Convention of 1854.” The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 10, No. 4 (December, 1941), 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 141.
    Michael Auslin, Negotiating with Imperialism: the Unequal Treaties and Culture of Japanese Diplomacy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 25.Google Scholar
  19. 145.
    William G. Beasley, “The Language Problem in the Anglo-Japanese Negotiations of 1854.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950), 750.Google Scholar
  20. 151.
    Takehiko Okuhira [Japanese language], “The Crimean War and the Far East, Part 1 [Kurimiya sens ō to kyokut ō (ichi)],” Kokusaih ō Gaik ō Zasshi, Vol. 35, No. 1 (1936), 65.Google Scholar
  21. 152.
    Richard Sims, French Policy towards the Bakufu and Meiji Japan 1854–1895 (Richmond, UK: Japan Library, 1998), 15.Google Scholar
  22. 158.
    See Meron Medzini, French Policy in Japan during the Closing Years of the Tokugawa Regime (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971) for a discussion of Baron Gros’ later efforts.Google Scholar
  23. 159.
    Edgar Franz, Philipp Franz von Siebold and Russian Policy and Action on Opening Japan to the West in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century (Munich, Germany: Iudicium Verlag, 2005), 59.Google Scholar
  24. 163.
    For an English language version, see Ivan Aleksandrovich Goncharov, trans. Klaus Goetze, Frigate Pallada (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  25. 173.
    Donald Keene, Travelers of a Hundred Ages: the Japanese as Revealed through 1,000 Years of Diaries (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 390.Google Scholar
  26. 180.
    Bernard Whittingham, Notes on the Late Expedition against the Russian Settlements in Eastern Siberia (London, UK: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1856), 202.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Andrew C. Rath 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew C. Rath

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations