This book has highlighted that the media can indeed enhance the democratic legitimacy of the European Union’s (EU’s) foreign policy. It has done so by posing two research questions: (a) Can the EU enjoy democratic legitimacy in its foreign policy through the activity of the media? (b) In what ways does the activity of the media endow the EU’s foreign policy democratic legitimacy? The argument developed in the book drew on insights from political theory and introduced the concept of the European public sphere, in order to highlight the ability of the media to enhance the multiple aspects of democratic legitimacy—transparency, accountability, responsiveness, and openness to public debate. As citizens do not commonly have access to information about the EU’s foreign policy, the media becomes their primary avenue for getting in contact or being actually linked to decision making in this policy area. At the same time, it has presented and employed a model consisting of three interaction effects (between the media and policymakers)—indexing, bounding, and agenda setting—which can shed light on the ability of the media to enhance the democratic legitimacy of decision making in the area of foreign policy. In this regard the empirical cases have provided mixed results.
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