Civil Servants in the Enabling Framework State of the 21st Century
Many observations in this volume concern changes and transformations in civil service systems (CSS), which have been defined as ‘mediating institutions for the mobilization of human resources in the service of the state in a given territory’ (Bekke, Perry and Toonen 1996: 2). How they work and operate has changed considerably in recent years. Whatever the nature of these changes, the desire for a solid and reliable civil service, based on the rule of law, has been pivotal to public sector reforms in various regions of the world, and certainly in Central and Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. In Western Europe and Anglo-American countries, the reform efforts were more focused on establishing a flexible CSS by means of New Public Management reforms. Where systems have not been able to achieve solid results in developing and maintaining a CSS strategy aimed at reform, especially when such reforms are not anchored in a Rechtsstaat tradition, deformation and regression have become more likely outcomes than reform and progression.
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