Research, Development and Innovation: International, National and Regional Perspectives

  • Fumi Kitagawa

Abstract

University research has undergone profound transformation over the past three decades. Some of the well-known theses and models about the transformation in the academic system and the changing nature of science — such as the ‘Mode 2’ of knowledge production (Gibbons et al., 1994; Nowotny, Scott and Gibbons, 2001) and the ‘triple helix’ (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 1997) model of interactions between government, university and industry — present broad pictures of the transformation of academic and research organization. In addition, in many parts of the world, universities are acknowledged to be important contributors to economic growth and crucial elements of ‘national innovation systems’ (Edquist, 2005; Mowery and Sampat, 2005; Nelson and Rosenberg, 1993) via the different mechanisms of academic knowledge transfers and exchanges at local, national and international level.

Keywords

Europe Expense Univer Exter Lester 

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