On January 30, 2003, two years after the International Herald Tribune published Donald Kirk’s story alluding to pre-Summit payoffs, Kim Ki-sam revealed many of the details. Until then, the scope of the quest had been a tightly guarded secret. No one other than top-level insiders had a clue as to the enormous price paid to bring about the Summit. No one saw the Summit as one giant step toward DJ’s goal of winning the Nobel Peace Prize. And certainly no one imagined that those payoffs would help to cover the costs of a fast-growing nuclear program that would enable North Korea to construct a dozen or so nuclear devices, exploding them in underground tests in 2006, 2009, and 2013—and possibly conducting another that had somehow escaped immediate notice.
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