Skip to main content

The Geneva Protocol of 1925

  • Chapter

Abstract

When President Gerald Ford signed the instruments of ratification for the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on January 22, 1975, a tortured, half-century-long chapter in U.S. arms control policy was brought to a close. Fifty years earlier, at the Geneva Conference for the Control of the International Trade in Arms, Munitions and Implements of War, the United States had played a key role in drafting and reaching agreement on the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol, signed by thirty nations, including the United States, on June 17, 1925, prohibits “the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices” as well as “the use of bacteriological methods of warfare.” Despite the unreserved support of the Coolidge administration for the protocol, after heavy lobbying by the U.S. Army’s Chemical Warfare Service (cws), the chemical industry, and veterans organizations, the Senate declined action on the treaty without a formal vote. It would be approximately forty-five years before the Senate had another opportunity to advise and consent to ratification of the protocol.

Keywords

  • American Chemical Society
  • National Archive
  • Chemical Weapon
  • Foreign Relation
  • Biological Weapon

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-137-04534-8_4
  • Chapter length: 42 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-137-04534-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

Books

  • Baker, Roscoe. The American Legion and American Foreign Policy. New York: Bookman Associates, 1954.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brophy, Leo P., and George J. B. Fisher. The Chemical Warfare Service: Organizing for War, Vol. 1 of The United States Army in World War II: The Technical Services. History of the Chemical Warfare Service Series. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1959.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, Frederic J. Chemical Warfare: A Study in Restraints. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1968.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buckley, Thomas H. The United States and the Washington Conference, 1921–1922. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buckley, Thomas H., and Edwin B. Strong, Jr. American Foreign and National Security Policies, 1914–1945. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buell, Raymond L. The Washington Conference. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1922.

    Google Scholar 

  • Challener, Richard D. Proceedings of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, from December 3, 1923 to March 3, 1933. Vol. 2 of The Legislative Origins of American Foreign Policy. New York: Garland, 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coolidge, Calvin. Foundations of the Republic: Speeches and Addresses. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1926.

    Google Scholar 

  • Duffield, Marcus. King Legion. New York: Jonathan Cape & Harrison Smith, 1931.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellis, Ethan L. Frank B. Kellogg and American Foreign Relations, 1925–1929. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1961.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. Republican Foreign Policy, 1921–1933. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1968.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferrell, Robert H. Peace in Their Time: The Origins of the Kellogg-Briand Pact. 1952. Reprint. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleming, Denna Frank. The United States and the League of Nations, 1918–1920. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1932.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fuess, Claude M. Calvin Coolidge: The Man from Vermont. Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown & Co., 1940.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guinsburg, Thomas N. The Pursuit of Isolationism in the United States Senate from Versailles to Pearl Harbor. New York: Garland, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gumbel, E. J. “Disarmament and Clandestine Rearmament Under the Weimer Republic.” In Inspection for Disarmament, edited by Seymour Melman. New York: Columbia University Press, 1958.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoag, C. Leonard. Preface to Preparedness: The Washington Disarmament Conference and Public Opinion. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Public Affairs, 1941.

    Google Scholar 

  • Irwin, Will. “The Next War”: An Appeal to Common Sense. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1921.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, Claudius O. Borah of Idaho. 1936. Reprint. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, Hiram. The Diary Letters of Hiram Johnson, vol. 4. New York: Garland, 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maddox, Robert J. William E. Borah and American Foreign Policy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  • Margulies, Herbert F. The Mild Reservationists and the League of Nations Controversy in the Senate. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCoy, Donald R. Calvin Coolidge: The Quiet President. New York: Macmillan Co., 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. Coming of Age: The United States During the 1920s and 1930s. Baltimore, Md.: Penguin, 1973.

    Google Scholar 

  • McKee, John Hiram. Coolidge Wit and Wisdom. New York: Frederick P. Stokes, 1933.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, Walter H. Germany Rearmed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  • Prentiss, Augustin M., and George J. B. Fisher. Chemicals in War: A Treatise on Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1937.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quint, Howard H., and Robert H. Ferrell, eds. The Talkative President: The Off-the-Record Press Conferences of Calvin Coolidge. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1964.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Vol. 4 of CB Disarmament Negotiations, 1920–1970. New York: Humanities Press, 1971.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone, Ralph. The Irreconcilables: The Fight Against the League of Nations. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, Ann Van Wynen, and A. J. Thomas, Jr. Legal Limits on the Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons. Dallas, Tex.: Southern Methodist University Press, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

Government Publications

  • Coolidge, Calvin. Message to the Senate. January 12, 1926. Record Group 46. Treaty Files. Sen 80B-B26, 8E4/16/2, Tray 88. National Archives.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ford, Gerald. Executive Order 11850, “Renunciation of Certain Uses in War of Chemical Herbicides and Riot Control Agents,” April 8, 1975. Federal Register 40, no. 70 (April 10, 1975): 161–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Truman, Harry S. “Message of the President to the Senate, April 8, 1947.” Department of State Bulletin 16, no. 407 (April 20, 1947): 726–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations. Treatment of the Question of Chemical and Bacteriological Warfare in the League of Nations: Review by the United Nations Secretariat. U.N. Document A/AC.50/3 (August 3, 1951): 26–51. Reproduced in U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on Disarmament. Disarmament and Security: A Collection of Documents, 1919–55. 84th Cong., 2d sess., 1956. Committee Print, 170–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Congress. Congressional Record. Washington, D.C., 1922–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Congress. Senate. Conference on the Limitation of Armament. 67th Cong., 2d sess., 1922. S. Doc. 126.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. Message from the President of the United States transmitting the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous, or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, signed at Geneva June 17, 1925. 91st Cong., 2d sess. August 19, Executive J.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. Prohibiting Use of Gases in War: Message from the President of the United States. 69th Cong., 1st sess., 1926. Executive G. Record Group 46. Treaty Files. Sen 80B-B26, 8E4/16/2, Tray 88. National Archives.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. Prohibiting Use of Gases in Warfare: Report from Senator Borah, Committee on Foreign Relations. 69th Cong., 1st sess., June 26, 1926. Calendar No. 16. Report No. 1. Record Group 46. Treaty Files. Sen 80B-B26, 8E4/16/2, Tray 88. National Archives. Reproduced in U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on Disarmament. Disarmament and Security: A Collection of Documents, 1919–55. 84th Cong., 2d sess., 1956. Committee Print, 700–704.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. The Geneva Protocol of 1925. 93d Cong., 2d sess., 1974. Executive Rept. No. 93–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. Hearings on the Geneva Protocol of 1925 (1971). 92d Cong., 1st sess., 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. Hearings on Prohibition of Chemical and Biological Weapons. 93d Cong., 2d sess., 1974.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on Disarmament. Disarmament and Security: A Collection of Documents, 1919–55. 84th Cong., 2d sess., 1956. Committee Print.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1925, vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1940.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1926, vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1941.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. National Security Council. National Security Decision Memorandum 35. November 25, 1969. NNMM Collection of NSC Documents. Folder “National Security Decision Memoranda.” National Archives.

    Google Scholar 

  • —. National Security Study Memorandum 59. May 28, 1969. NNMM Collection of NSC Documents. Folder “National Security Decision Memoranda.” National Archives.

    Google Scholar 

Unpublished Works

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Copyright information

© 1991 Henry L. Stimson Center

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

McElroy, R.J. (1991). The Geneva Protocol of 1925. In: Krepon, M., Caldwell, D. (eds) The Politics of Arms Control Treaty Ratification. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-04534-8_4

Download citation