New Onset of Fever and Leukocytosis
The development of fever and leukocytosis in a post-surgical patient is a common clinical scenario that may arise due to a considerable number of various differential etiologies, including infection, inflammation, thromboembolic disease, as well as others. This often necessitates targeted diagnostic imaging to refine the suspected clinical diagnosis, which can aid in providing prompt specific therapy. Here, we discuss general related concerns of an intensivist, as well as specific imaging modalities such as Computerized Tomography, Radiography, Ultrasound, Nuclear Medicine, Interventional Radiology, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Specific etiologies and a proposed diagnostic imaging algorithm for the patient with fever and sepsis in the Intensive Care Unit are also discussed. Multiple figures as well as selected illustrative case examples are provided for added perspective.