All of mathematics rests on the foundations of numbers and set theory. This first chapter reviews some basic definitions and notations, including the basic number sets, factors and factorization, and prime numbers. Equations and inequalities are treated, followed by sums and summation notations. After introducing sets and Venn diagrams, we define some standard statistical ideas—means, modes, medians, and standard deviations.


Number system Set Venn diagram Mean Median 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

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