Properties of Numbers
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All of discrete mathematics—and, in fact, all of mathematics—rests on the foundations of set theory and numbers. The first section covers some basic definitions and notations, including the basic number sets, factors, and factorization and prime numbers. Sums and summation notations are treated in the second section.
Bases are defined in Section 1.3, with special emphasis on base 10—the standard base for our number notation—and base 2, which is used in computers. The study of base 10 is continued with a discussion of scientific notation, floating point numbers, and rounding. Section 1.5 explores further the use of binary notation in computers, and introduces hexadecimal numbers.