Women’s Health and Menopause Epidemiology: The USA Experience
For many years, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death for women of all races in the United States, as it is for men, and kills more women than men each year (Figure 1) [1,2]. In fact, CVD kills nearly twice as many women as cancer (the next leading cause) and is responsible for a slightly higher proportion of total deaths in Caucasian than African-American women .
KeywordsPostmenopausal Woman National Health Interview Survey Cardiovascular Health Study Postmenopausal Estrogen American Indian Woman
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.National Center for Health Statistics. Public-use mortality data tapes and unpublished data from the Division of Vital Statistics, 1968 to 1995.Google Scholar
- 2.National Office of Vital Statistics. Death rates by age, race, and sex; United States, 1900–1953: All causes. Vital Statistics Special Reports 1956;43(1):9.Google Scholar
- 3.World Health Organization. World Health Statistics Annual. Selected issues for years 1969 to 1994.Google Scholar
- 4.National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics of the United States, 1993. Vol. 2, pt. A. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.Google Scholar
- 5.U.S. Bureau of the Census. Projections of the population of the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1992 to 2050. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992 (current population reports: series p-25, no. 1092).Google Scholar
- 7.National Center for Health Statistics. Unpublished tabulations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994, furnished by Thomas Thorn (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute).Google Scholar
- 11.National Center for Health Statistics. Chartbook of the conference on the decline in coronary heart disease mortality, 1978.Google Scholar
- 12.National Center for Health Statistics. National Hospital Discharge Survey. Vital and health statistics; Series 13 (issues from 1970 to 1995).Google Scholar
- 13.National Center for Health Statistics. Unpublished tabulations from the National Health Interview Survey, 1988–1990 and 1991–1993, furnished by Thomas Thorn (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute).Google Scholar
- 17.Scarabin P-Y, Vissac A-M, Kirzin J-M, et al. Population correlates of coagulation factor VII: Importance of age, sex, and menopausal status as determinants of activated factor VII. Thromb Vasc Biol 1996;16:1170–76.Google Scholar
- 19.Bush TL, Barrett-Connor E, Cowan LD, Criqui MH, Wallace RB, Suchindran CM. Cardiovascular mortality and non-contraceptive estrogen use in women: Results from the Lipid-Research Clinics Program Follow-up Study. Circulation 1987;75:1002–9.Google Scholar