Rights, Reforms, and the Health Care Crisis: Problems and Prospects

  • Thomas Halper
Part of the Philosophy and Medicine book series (PHME, volume 38)

Abstract

I am not sure that health care can profitably be discussed in the context of rights. For one thing, it is a term of many and shifting meanings, and thus virtually guarantees some degree of misunderstanding and confusion. For another, the very uttering of “rights” carries tones of ethical seriousness, if not outright superiority, that gives its advocates a substantial and unearned advantage in debate. Contemporary political scientists, as a result, have tended to feel more comfortable with “claims” (cf. [82]). Yet “rights” is what this book is about, and so “rights” must set the terms of the discussion.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Abel-Smith, B.: 1978, ‘Minimum Adequate Levels of Personal Health Care: History and Justification’, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 56, 7–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aday, L. and Andersen, R.: 1984, ‘The National Profile of Access to Medical Care: Where Do We Stand?’, American Journal of Public Health, 74, 1331–1339.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Board of Family Practice: 1985, Rights and Responsibilities: A National Survey of Health Care Opinions, American Board of Family Practice, Lexington, Kentucky.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andersen, O.W.: 1984, ‘Health Services in the United States: A Growth Enterprise for a Hundred Years’, in T.J. Litman and L.S. Robins (eds.), Health Politics and Policy, Wiley, New York, pp. 67–80.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andersen, O.W.: 1976, ‘PSROs, the Medical Profession, and the Public Interest’, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 54, 379–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Annas, G.J.: ‘Regulating the Introduction of Heart and Liver Transplantation’, American Journal of Public Health, 75 93–95.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnould, R.J., Debrock, L.W., and Pollard, J.W.: 1984, ‘Do HMOs Provide Specific Services More Efficiently?’, Inquiry, 21, 243–253.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Banta, H.B., Behney, C.B., and Willems, J.S.: Toward Rational Technology in Medicine, Springer Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beck, D.F.: 1985, ‘The Hospital’s Financial Future: DRGs and Beyond’, Health Care Supervisor, 3, 1–10.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beck, R.G.: 1974, ‘The Effects of Co-Payment on the Poor’, Journal of Human Resources, 9, 128–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berki, S.E. and Ashcraft, M.L.F.: 1980, ‘HMO Enrollment: Who Joins What and Why: A Review of the Literature’, Milbank Memoral Fund Quarterly 58, 581–603.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blumstein, J.F.: 1976, ‘Constitutional Perspectives on Governmental Decisions Affecting Human Life and Health’, Law and Contemporary Problems 40, 231–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brandt, R.: 1979, A Theory of the Right and the Good, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brook, R.H., Ware, J.E., Rogers, W.H. et al.: 1983, ‘Does Free Care Improve Adults’ Health?’, New England Journal of Medicine 309, 1426–1434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Census Bureau: 1985, Survey of Income and Program Participation.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Childress, J.F.: 1979, ‘A Right to Health Care?’, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4, 132–147.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Daniels, N.: 1981, ‘Health Care Needs and Distributive Justice’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 10, 146–179.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dixon, R.H. and Laszlo, J.: 1974, ‘Utilization of Clinical Chemistry Services by Medical House Staff’, Archives of Internal Medicine 134, 1064–1067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dobson, A., Greer, J.G., and Carlson, R.H. et al.: 1978, ‘PSROs: Their Current Status and Their Impact to Date’, Inquiry 15, 113–128.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Donlan, T.G.: 1985, ‘Carolyne Who? Carolyne K. Davis Talks Softly, Controls Big Purse’, Barron’s, March 11, pp. 36, 40.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Donabedian, A.: 1978, ‘The Quality of Medical Care’, Science 200, 856–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dresnick, S.J., Roth, W.I., Linn, B.S. et al.: ‘The Physician’s Role in the Cost-Containment Program’, Journal of the American Medical Association 2418, 1606–1609.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dyck, F.J., Murphy, J.K., Road, D.A. et al.: 1977, ‘Effects of Surveillance on The Number of Hysterectomies in the Province of Saskatchewan’, New England Journal of Medicine 296, 1326–1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dyckman, Z.Y.: 1978, A Study of Physicians’ Fees. Government Printing Office, Washington.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Easton, D.: 1953, The Political System: An Inquiry into Political Science, Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Edwards, L.D., Levin, S., and Balagatas, R.: 1973, ‘Ordering Patterns and Utilization of Bacteriologic Culture Reports’, Archives of Internal Medicine 132, 678–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Egelman, A.: 1984, ‘HMOs: Incentive for Cost-Efficiency’, New York Times, December 27, p.A20, col. 1.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Elder v. Beat 609 F, 2d 695 (3rd Cir.).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Enthoven, A.C.: 1980, Health Plan, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Falkson, J.: 1980, HMOs and the Politics of Health System Reform, American Hospital Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Farley, P.J. and Wilensky, G.R.: 1983, ‘Options, Incentives and Employment-Related Health Insurance’, in R.M. Schefler and L.F. Rossiter (eds.), Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut, pp. 57–82.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Feldstein, P.J.: 1979. Health Care Economics, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fisher, A.B.: 1985, ‘The New Game in Health Care: Who Will Profit’, Fortune 4 March, 111, 138–143.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Freeland, M.S. and Schendler, C.E.S.: 1983, ‘National Health Expenditure Growth in the 1980s: An Aging Population, New Technologies, and Increased Competition’, Health Care Financing Review 4, 1–58.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Freudenheim, M.: 1985, ‘H.M.O. Growth Displays Vigor’, New York Times, April 16, p. D2, col. 1.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fried, C: 1975, ‘Rights and Health Care — Beyond Equity and Efficiency’, New England Journal of Medicine 293, 241–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gaus, C.R., Cooper, B.S., and Hirschman, C.G.: 1975, ‘Contracts in HMO and Fee-for-Service Performance’, Social Security Bulletin, May 29, 3–14.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    General Accounting Office: 1985, Problems in Administering Medicare, Health Maintenance Organization Demonstration Projects in Florida, GAO/HRD-85-48.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    General Accounting Office: 1984, Excessive Respiratory Therapy Cost and Utilization Data used in Setting Medicare’s Prospective Payment Rates GAO/HRD-84-90.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gertman, P.M. and Restuccia, J.D.: 1981, ‘The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol: A Technique for Assessing Unnecessary Days of Hospital Care’, Medical Care 19, 855–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gibson, R.M. and Waldo, D.R.: 1982, ‘National Health Expenditures, 1981’, Health Care Financing Review 4, 1–55.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ginsburg, P.B.: 1981, ‘Altering the Tax Treatment of Employment-Based Health Plans’, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 59, 224–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goldberg, L.G. and Greenberg, W.: 1980, ‘The Competitive Response of Blue Cross to the Health Maintenance Organization’, Economic Inquiry 18, 55–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldfarb v. Virginia State Bar: 1975, 421 U.S. 773.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gorovitz, S.: 1966, ‘Ethics and the Allocation of Medical Resources’, Medical Research in Engineering 5, 5–7.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Griffith, J.R.: 1984, ‘DRGs — What’s Next?’, Two Views, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Halper, T.: 1984, ‘Aging Policy in the Eighties: Second Thoughts on a Strategy That Has Worked’, in S.F. Spicker and S.R. Ingman (eds.), Vitalizing Long-Term Care, Springer Publishing, New York, pp. 3–13.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Halper, T.: 1985, ‘End-Stage Renal Failure and the Aged in the United Kingdom’, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 1, 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Halper, T.: 1985, ‘Life and Death in a Welfare State’, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 63, 52–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Halper, T.: 1979, ‘On Death, Dying and Terminality: Today, Yesterday and Tomorrow’, Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law 4, 11–29.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Halper, T.: 1981, Power, Politics, and American Democracy, Scott, Fores-man, Glencoe.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Harris v. McRae: 1980, 448 U.S. 297.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Health and Human Services, Bureau of Health Professions: 1984, Report on Physician Supply.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Herron, C: 1985, ‘Hospital Readmission Is Not Cost-Effective’, New York Times, May 2, p. A26, col. 6.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Holahan, J. and Scanlon, W.: 1978 ‘Physician Pricing in California: Price Controls, Physician Fees, and Physician Incomes from Medicare and Medicaid’, Health Care Financing Growth and Contracts Report prepared pursuant to contract SSA 600-76-0054.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    ‘Hospital Costs Rose by 4.6% in’ 84, Lowest Rate Since ‘63’: 1985, New York Times, April 14,1, p. 46, col. 4.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kelly, S.P.: 1978, ‘Physicians’ Knowledge of Hospital Costs’, Journal of Family Practice 6, 171–172.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kirkland, L.R.: 1979, ‘The Physician and Cost Containment’, Journal of the American Medical Association 242, 1032.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kohlman, H.A.: 1984, ‘Determining a Contribution Margin for DRG Profitability’, Healthcare Financial Management, April, 108–110.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kunin, CM., Tupasi, T., and Craig, W.A.: 1973, ‘Use of Antibiotics: A Brief Exposition of the Problem and Some Tentative Solutions’, Archives of Internal Medicine 79, 555–560.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kurskey, G.F.: 1973, ‘Health Care, Human Rights and Government Intervention: A Critical Appraisal’, California Dental Association Journal, in R. Hunt and J. Arras (eds.): 1977, Ethical Ideas in Modern Medicine, Mayfield Publishing, Palo Alto, pp. 465–471.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Law, S.: 1974, Blue Cross: What Went Wrong?, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Levin, S. and Balagatas, R.: 1973, ‘Ordering Patterns and Utilization of Bacteriologic Culture Reports’, Archives of Internal Medicine 132, 678–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Levine, S., Feldman, J.J., and Elinson, J.: 1983, ‘Does Medical Care Do Any Good?’, in D. Mechanic (ed.), Handbook of Health, Health Care, and the Health Professions, Free Press, New York, pp. 394–404.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Luft, H.S.: 1980, ‘Assessing the Evidence on HMO Performance’, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 58, 501–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Luft, H.S.: 1981, ‘The Operations and Performance of Health Maintenance Organizations: A Synthesis of Findings from Health Service Research’, prepared for the National Center for Health Services Research.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Luft, H.S. and Frisvold, G.A.: 1979, ‘Decisionmaking in Regulatory Health Planning Agencies’, Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law 4, 250–272.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Maher v. Roe: 1977, 432 U.S. 464.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marmor, T.: 1985, ‘A Political Scientist’s View’, Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 61, 101–106.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Marmor, T. and Marmor, J.: 1973, The Politics of Medicare, Aldine Publishing Co., Chicago.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Marquis, M.S.: 1983, ‘Consumers’ Knowledge about Their Health Insurance Coverage’, Health Care Financing Review 5, 65–80.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Martin, D.: 1983, ‘Health Care in Canada: Popular System Now Rocked by Criticism’, New York Times, February 15, p. Cl, col.l.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Masso, A.R.: 1985, ‘HMOs in Transition: What the Future Holds’, Business Health, January–February, 2, 21–24.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    McClure, W.: 1982, ‘Implementing a Competitive Medical Care System through Public Policy’, Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law 7, 2–43.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    McClure, W.: 1982a, ‘Toward Development and Application of a Qualitative Theory of Hospital Utilization’, Inquiry 9, 117–135.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    McCulloch, L.B.: 1979, ‘The Right to Health Care’, Ethics in Science and Medicine, 6, 1–9.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    McKeown, T.: 1976, The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage or Nemesis. Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust, London.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    McKinlay, J.B. and McKinlay, S.M.: 1977, ‘The Questionable Contribution of Medical Measures to the Decline of Mortality in the U.S. in the Twentieth Century’, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 55, 405–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Melnick, G.A., Wheeler, J.R.C., and Feldstein, P.J.: 1981, ‘Effects of Rate Regulation on Selected Components of Hospital Expenses’, Inquiry 18, 240–246.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Menzel, P.T.: 1983, Medical Costs, Moral Choices, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Moloney, T.W. and Rogers, D.E.: 1979, ‘Medical Technology — A Different View of the Contentions Debate over Costs’, New England Journal of Medicine 301, 1413–1419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Morgan, R.E.: 1985, Disabling America: The “Rights Industry” in Our Time, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Newhouse, J.P., Manning, W.G., Morris, C.N. et al.: 1981, ‘Some Interim Results from a Controlled Trial of Cost Sharing in Health Insurance’, New England Journal of Medicine 305, 1501–1507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Newhouse, J.P., Manning, W.G., Morris, C.N. et al.: 1982, Some Interim Results from a Controlled Trial of Cost Sharing Health Insurance, Rand Corporation (publication R-2847-HHS), Santa Monica.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nozick, R.: 1974, Anarchy, State, and Utopia. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Outka, G.: 1974, ‘Social Justice and the Equal Access to Health Care’, Journal of Religious Ethics 2, 11–32.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Parsons, F.M. and Ogg, C.S. (eds.): 1983, Renal Failure — Who Cares? MTP Press, Lancaster.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pauley, M.V. and Langwell, K.M.: 1982, Research on Competition in the Market for Health Services: Problems and Prospects. Applied Management Systems, Silver Spring, Maryland.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pear, R.: 1985a, ‘Companies Tackle Health Costs’, New York Times, 3 March, III, p. 11, col. 1.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pear, R.: 1985b, ‘Health Care Regulation: Bane? Balm? Accident?’ New York Times, January 15, p. A16, col. 3.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pear, R.: 1985c, ‘Medical Inflation Slackens Slightly’, New York Times, January 28, p. Al, col. 1.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pear, R.: 1985d, ‘U.S. Plans to Freeze Medicare Hospital Payments’, New York Times, May 29, p. Al, col. 4.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pear, R.: 1985e, ‘Washington Drives a Hard Bargain on Medical Costs’, New York Times, January 20, IV, p. 3, col. 1.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Preston, S.H.: 1984, ‘Children and the Elderly in the U.S.’, Scientific American 251, December, 44–49.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Purdum, T.S.: 1985, ‘Hospital Company and No. 1 Supplier Plan Huge Merger’, New York Times, p. Al, col. 1.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Radin, M.: 1900, ‘A Restatement of Hohfeld’, Harvard Law Review 51, (1928), 1141–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rawls, J.: 1971, A Theory of Justice. Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Regents of the University of California v. Bakke: 1978, 438 U.S. 265.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Reinhold, R.: 1982, ‘Competition Held Key to Lower Medical Costs’, New York Times, 1 April, p. Al, col. 2.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Restuccia, J.D. and Holloway, D.C.: 1976, ‘Barriers to Appropriate Utilization of an Acute Facility’, Medical Care 14, 559–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rettig, R.A.: 1976, ‘The Policy Debate on Patient Care Financing for Victims of End-Stage Renal Disease’, Law and Contemporary Problems, Autumn, 196–230.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rice, T. and McCall, N.: 1982, ‘Changes in Medicare Reimbursement in Colorado: Impact on Physicians’ Economic Behavior’, Health Care Finance Review 3, 67–84.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rosko, M.D. and Boyles, R.W.: 1985. ‘Unintended Consequences of Prospective Payment: Erosion of Hospital Financial Position and Cost Shifting’, Health Care Management Review 9, 35–44.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Salkever, D.S. and Bice, T.W.: 1978, ‘Certificate-of-Need Legislation and Hospital Costs’, in M. Zubkoff, I.E. Raskin, and R.S. Hart (eds.), Hospital Cost Containment: Selected Notes for Future Policy, Prodist, New York, pp. 429–460.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schelling, T.C.: 1968, ‘The Life You Save May Be Your Own’, in S.B. Chas (ed.), Problems in Public Expenditure Analysis, Brookings Institution, Washington, pp. 127–162.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schroeder, S.A.: 1984, ‘Western European Responses to Physician Over-supply — Lessons from the United States’, Journal of the American Medical Association 252, 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schweiker v. Gray Panthers: 1981,453 U.S. 1.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Scitovsky, A. and McCall, N.: 1977, ‘Coinsurance and the Demand for Physicians Services: Four Years Later’, Social Security Bulletin 40, 19–27.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sen, A.K.: 1973, On Economic Inequality, Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shapiro, M., Townsend, T.R., Rosner, B., Kass, E.H.: 1979, ‘Use of Antimicrobial Drugs in General Hospitals: Patterns of Prophylaxis’, New England Journal of Medicine 301, 351–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Shepard, D.S.: 1983, ‘Estimating the Effects of Hospital Closure on Areawide Impatient Hospital Costs: A Preliminary Model and Application’, Health Services Research 18, 513–550.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sloan, F.A.: 1981, ‘Regulation and the Rising Cost of Hospital Care’, Review of Economics and Statistics 63, 479–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sullivan, R.: 1979, ‘New York’s Hospitals Will Gain by Filling Fewer Beds’, New York Times, December 31, p. A13.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sullivan, R.: 1985, ‘Decline in Hospital Use Tied to New U.S. Policies’, New York Times, April 16, p. Al, col. 1.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Taylor, A.K.: 1984, ‘Hospital Cost Inflation, Health Insurance and Market Incentives in the Hospital Industry’, R.M. Scheffler and L.F. Rossiter (eds.), Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, Vol. 5, JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut, pp. 237–276.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vayda, E.: 1973, ‘A Comparison of Surgical Rates in Canada and in England and Wales’, New England Journal of Medicine 289, 1224–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Veatch, R.M.: 1976, ‘What Is a ‘Just’ Health Care Delivery?’, in R.M. Veatch and R. Branson (eds.), Ethics and Health Policy, Ballinger, Cambridge, pp. 127–153.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Veterans Administration: 1984, Caring for the Older Veteran, Government Printing Office, Washington.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wallace, A.C.: 1985, ‘Finding the Right Niche in Health Care’, New York Times, April 7, III, p. 10, col. 2.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Warner, R.: 1980, Morality in Medicine. Alfred Publishing, Sherman Oaks.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wennberg, J.E., Barnes, B.A., and Zubkoff, M.: 1982, ‘Professional Uncertainty and the Problem of Supplier Induced Demand’, Social Science and Medicine 16, 811–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wilensky, G.R.: 1982, ‘Government and the Financing of Health Care’, American Economic Review 72, 202–207.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wilensky, G.R. and Walden, D.C.: 1981, ‘Minorities, Poverty, and the Uninsured’, National Center for Health Services Research, Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Willems, J.S.: 1979, ‘The Relationship between the Diffusion of Medical Technology and the Organization and Economics of Health Care Delivery’, in J.L. Wagner (ed.), Medical Technology, National Center for Health Services Research, Hyattsville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Williams, B.: 1962, ‘The Idea of Equality’, in P. Laslett and W.G. Runciman (eds.), Philosophy, Politics, and Society, 2d ser., Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Wolinsky, F.D.: 1980, ‘The Performance of Health Maintenance Organizations: An Analytic View’, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 58, 537–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Worthington, N.L. and Piro, P.A.: 1982, ‘The Effects of Hospital Rate-Setting Programs on Volumes of Hospital Services: A Preliminary Analysis’, Health Care Financing Review 4, 47–66.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Yarbro, J.W. and Mortenson, L.E.: 1985, ‘The Need for Diagnosis-Related Group 471’, Journal of the American Medical Association 253, 684–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Halper
    • 1
  1. 1.Baruch CollegeCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations