Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Chemical Restraint, and the Recognition and Treatment of Pain and Distress

  • David R. Gross


The reader is referred to two standard veterinary textbooks for in-depth information about the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and practical use of anesthetic and analgesic agents in animals.1, 2 The preanesthetic, anesthetic, chemical restraint, and analgesic regimens cited in this chapter have received approval from an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) or similar body with the same responsibilities or have been published by board certified veterinary anesthesiologists.

There is increasing pressure, primarily a response of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees to external pressure, to require that any procedure conducted in animals that could be considered to cause pain or distress to a human be conducted with the benefit of anesthesia or analgesia. This policy can and does result in some anesthetic deaths, stress associated with the anesthetic procedure, and/or confounding drug-induced changes in the animal that may be more severe than the procedure to be conducted. In some instances, proper prior training and acclimation of the animals, particularly of the larger species, to the procedure can result in fewer problems than tranquilizing, sedating, or anesthetizing the animal. It might still be necessary to provide chemical restraint for a variety of reasons including humane considerations. For most circumstances, the same agents used for anesthesia and/or analgesia can be used for chemical restraint.


Tracheal Intubation Anesthetic Agent Small Ruminant Malignant Hyperthermia Incision Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Gross
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary BiosciencesUniversity of Illinois, Urbana Champaign College of Veterinary MedicineUrbanaUSA

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