Animal Models for the Study of Neurohumeral and Central Neural Control of the Cardiovascular System

  • David R. Gross


Studies investigating the integrative central control of the locomotor and cardiovascular system have mostly been conducted in rats. These studies have shown that control of cardiovascular responses is located in neurons in close proximity, if not overlapping or possibly identical to, neurons responsible for respiratory and locomotor control. In rats cardiorespiratory and locomotor centers have been identified in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), posterior hypothalamic area (PHA), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM), and the cuneiform nucleus (CnF). Of these, the PH has been clearly identified as both a locomotor and cardiovascular center.1

The CnF, with the pedunculopontine nucleus, has been identified as the mesencephalic locomotor center.2,3 The spinal cord and the lateral tegmental field (LTF) have been identified as integration sites for cardiorespiratory and locomotor responses.4 Interestingly, exercise training induced attenuation of dendritic fields of neurons in the exercising rat model.1


Carotid Body Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Sympathetic Outflow Medial Preoptic Area Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Gross
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary BiosciencesUniversity of Illinois, Urbana Champaign College of Veterinary MedicineUrbanaUSA

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