Sectorial Energy and Exergy Utilization

Chapter

Abstract

Thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy balance can be applied at macroscales such as sector of activity, geopolitical region, country, group of countries, or the world. An energy balance can be determined by accounting for all primary energy flows, all useful forms of energy, and the energy losses in the conversion processes. Such analysis gives important insights regarding the way in which the primary energy resources are used; it helps identify the ways and places for improvement, and it is a necessary tool for macroeconomical planning.

Nomenclature

COP

Coefficient of performance

ex

Specific exergy, kJ/kg

HHV

Higher heating value, MJ/kg or MJ/kmol

IT

Solar radiation, W/m2

ke

Specific kinetic energy, kJ/kg

LHV

Lower heating value, MJ/kg

q

Heat per unit of mass, kJ/kg or mol, kJ/mol or surface (″), kW/m2

Q

Heat, J

T

Temperature, K

w

Specific work, J/kg

W

Work, J

Greek Letters

η

Energy efficiency

ψ

Exergy efficiency

ζ

Quality factor

Subscripts

0

Reference state

inp

Input

p

Process

Superscripts

ch

Chemical

s

Solar

Per unit of surface

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering & Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada

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