Social Risk Factors

  • Klaus KrickebergEmail author
  • David Klemperer
Part of the Statistics for Biology and Health book series (SBH)


Among risk factors for infectious diseases, social ones present a particular challenge due to the increasing importance of old and new infections on the one hand, and the complexity of social reality on the other. This is not a new phenomenon.


Social Factor Tuberculosis Incidence Infective Agent Social Risk Factor Crowded Housing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Acevedo-Garcia, D. (2000) Residential segregation and the epidemiology of infectious diseases . Soc. Sci. Med. 51, 1143–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acevedo-Garcia, D. (2001) Zip code-level risk factors for tuberculosis: Neighborhood environment and residential segregation in New Jersey, 1985–1992. Am. J. Public Health 91, 734–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badura, B. (2006) Social capital, social inequality, and the healthy organization. In: Noack, H. and Kahr-Gottlieb, D. (eds.), Promoting the public’s health. The EUPHA 2005 conference book, Verlag für Gesundheitsförderung, Gamburg, 53–60Google Scholar
  4. Bourdieu, P. (1979) La distinction. Editions de Minuit, ParisGoogle Scholar
  5. Cassel, J.(1976) The contribution of the social environment to host resistance. Am. J. Epidemiol. 104, 107–123Google Scholar
  6. Chandola, T. and Marmot, M. (2005) Social epidemiology. In: Ahrens, W. and Pigeot, I. (eds.), Handbook of Epidemiology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 893–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cox, D. and Wermuth, N. (1996) Multivariate Dependencies: Models, Analysis and Interpretation. Chapman & Hall, LondonzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Dony, J.F., Ahmad, J. and Khen Tiong, Y. (2004) Epidemiology of tuberculosis and leprosy, Sabah, Malaysia. Tuberc. (Edinb.) 84 (1–2), 8–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferreira Antunes, J.L. and Alves Waldman, E. (2001) The impact of AIDS, immigration and housing overcrowding on tuberculosis deaths in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1994–1998. Soc. Sci. Med. 52, 1071–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grassly, N.C., Fraser, F. and Garnett, G.P. (2005) Host immunity and synchronized epidemics of syphilis across the United States. Nature 433, 417–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Green, E.C., Halperin, D.T., Nantulya V. and Hogle, J.A. (2006) Uganda’s HIV prevention success: The role of sexual behavior change and the national response. AIDS Behav. 10 (4), 335–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hobdell, M.H., Oliveira, E.R., Bautista, R., Myburgh, N.G., Lalloo, R., Narendran, S. and Johnson, N.W. (2003) Oral diseases and socio-economic status (SES). Br. Dent. J. 194 (2), 91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Justin, M. C., Wilson, M.L. and Allison, E.A. (2007) Analysis of social epidemiology research on infectious diseases: historical patterns and future opportunities. J. Epidemiol Community Health 61, 1021–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kark, S.A. (1949) The social pathology of syphilis in Africans. S. Afr. Med. J. 23, 77–84Google Scholar
  15. Kistemann, T.h., Munzinger, A. and Dangendorf, F. (2002) Spatial patterns of tuberculosis incidence in Cologne (Germany). Soc. Sci. Med. 55, 7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krickeberg, K. (2007) Principles of health information systems in developing countries. Health Inf. Manag. J. 36 (3), 8–20Google Scholar
  17. Krieger, N. (1994) Epidemiology and the web of causation: Has anyone seen the spider? Soc. Sci. Med. 39, 887–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krieger, N. (2001) Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Internat. J. Epidemiol. 30, 668–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leibfried, S, and Tennstedt, F. (1980). Berufsverbote und Sozialpolitik 1933. Die Auswirkungen der nationalsozialistischen Machtergreifung auf die Krankenkassenverwaltung und die Kassenärzte. 2nd. Ed. Series: Arbeitspapiere des Forschungsschwerpunktes Reproduktionsrisiken, soziale Bewegungen und Sozialpolitik, University of Bremen, BremenGoogle Scholar
  20. Levy, A., Fraser, D., Vardi, H. and Dagan, R. (1998) Hospitalizations for infectious diseases in Jewish and Bedouin children in southern Israel. Eur J Epidemiol 14 (2), 179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lurie, M., Williams, B.G., Zuma, K.D.K., Mkaya-Mwamburi, D. et al. (2003) Who infects whom? HIV-1 concordance and discordance among migrant and non-migrant couples in South Africa. AIDS 17 (15), 2245–2252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marmot, M.G., Smith, G.D., Stansfeld, S., Patel, C., North, F., Head, J., et al. (1991) Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. Lancet 337(8754), 1387–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marmot, M.G. and Wilkinson, R.G. (1999) Social Determinants of Health. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  24. Mosse, M. and Tugendreich, G. (eds.), (1913) Krankheit und soziale Lage (Disease and social condition). Lehmanns, München. Reprinted 1981 WiSo Med, Göttingen, 3rd Ed.Google Scholar
  25. Murray, C.J.L., Lopez, A.D., and Mathers, C.D. (2004) The global epidemiology of infectious diseases. WHO global burden of disease and injury series 1, WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  26. Myer, L., Ehrlich, R.I. and Susser, E.S. (2004) Social epidemiology in South Africa. Epidemiol. Rev. 26, 112–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DinhP.N., LongH.T., TienN.T.K., HienN.T., Mai Le T.Q., Phong LeH., Tuan LeV., Van TanH., NguyenN.B., Van TuP. and PhuongN.T.M. (2006) Risk factors for human infection with avian influenza A H5N1, Vietnam, 2004. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 (12), 1841–1847Google Scholar
  28. Poundstone, K.E., Strathdee, S.A. and Celentano, D.D. (2004) The social epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Epidemiol. Rev. 26, 22–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rosen, G. (1993) A history of public health. Expanded Edition. The John Hopkins Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Susser, M. (2001) Glossary: causality in public health science. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 55, 376–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tellez, M., Sohn, W., Burt, B.A. and Ismail, A.I. (2006) Assessment of the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and dental caries severity among low-income African-Americans: a multilevel approach. J. Public Health Dent. 66 (1), 30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Virchow, R. (1848) Mittheilungen über die in Oberschlesien herrschende Typhusepidemie (Informations on the present typhoid fever epidemic in Upper Silesia). Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin II (1–2)Google Scholar
  33. Zahraoui-Mehadji, M., Baakrim, M.Z., Laraqui, S., Laraqui, O., El Kabouss, Y., Verger, C., Caubet, A. and Laraqui, C.H. (2004) Infectious risks associated with blood exposure for traditional barbers and their customers in Morocco [in French]. Santé 14 (4), 211–216Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitè de Paris VParisFrance
  2. 2.BielefeldGermany
  3. 3.School of Social SciencesUniversity of Applied SciencesRegensburgGermany

Personalised recommendations