Bloodborne and Sexual Transmission: HIV/AIDS

  • Charlotte van den Berg
  • Karen LindenburgEmail author
  • Roel Coutinho
Part of the Statistics for Biology and Health book series (SBH)


In 2007, approximately 33 million people were estimated to be living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 worldwide. An estimated 2.5 million became newly infected with HIV-1 that year, while an estimated 2.1 million died of AIDS. This means that everyday almost 6,850 people are newly infected with HIV-1, and over 5,750 die from AIDS, mostly because of inadequate access to HIV-1 prevention and treatment services. In the 27 years since the first cases of AIDS were described, approximately 20 million people have died from AIDS.


Caesarean Delivery Sexually Transmitted Infection Male Circumcision Inject Drug User Post Exposure Prophylaxis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Almeda J, Casabona J, Simon B, Gerard M, Rey D, Puro V et al. (2004) Proposed recommendations for the management of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis after sexual, injecting drug or other exposures in Europe. Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Europeen sur les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin; 9(6):35–40Google Scholar
  2. Alter MJ (2006) Epidemiology of viral hepatitis and HIV co-infection. J Hepatol; 44(1 Suppl):S6–S9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, Puren A (2005) Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Medicine/Public Library of Science; 2(11):e298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Krieger JN et al. (2007) Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet; 369(9562):643–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chan DJ (2006) Fatal attraction: sex, sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1. Int J STD AIDS; 17(10):643–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coakley E, Petropoulos CJ, Whitcomb JM (2005) Assessing chemokine co-receptor usage in HIV. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 18(1):9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Collaborative Group on AIDS incubation and HIV survival including the CASCADE EU Concerted Action(2000) Time from HIV-1 seroconversion to AIDS and death before widespread use of highly-active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative re-analysis. Lancet; 355:1131–1137Google Scholar
  8. Cooper ER, Charurat M, Mofenson L, Hanson IC, Pitt J, Diaz C et al. (2002) Combination antiretroviral strategies for the treatment of pregnant HIV-1-infected women and prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 29(5):484–494Google Scholar
  9. Corey L, Wald A, Celum CL, Quinn TC (2004) The effects of herpes simplex virus-2 on HIV-1 acquisition and transmission: a review of two overlapping epidemics. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 35(5):435–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corbett EL, Marston B, Churchyard GJ, De Cock KM (2006) Tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities, challenges, and change in the era of antiretroviral treatment. Lancet; 367(9514):926–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N, Maher D, Williams BG, Raviglione MC et al. (2003) The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch Intern Med; 163(9):1009–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dao H, Mofenson LM, Ekpini R, Gilks CF, Barnhart M, Bolu O et al. (2007) International recommendations on antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV-infected women and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-limited settings: 2006 update. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 197(3 Suppl):S42–S55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ellerbrock TV, Bush TJ, Chamberland ME, Oxtoby MJ (1991) Epidemiology of women with AIDS in the United States. 1981 through 1990 A comparison with heterosexual men with AIDS. JAMA; 265(22):2971–2975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. el-Sadr WM, Lundgren JD, Neaton JD, Gordin F, AbramsD, Arduino RC et al. (2006) CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment. N Engl J Med; 355(22):2283–2296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eshleman SH, Mracna M, Guay LA, Deseyve M, Cunningham S, Mirochnick M et al. (2001) Selection and fading of resistance mutations in women and infants receiving nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 vertical transmission (HIVNET 012). AIDS; 15(15):1951–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. EuroHIV (2007) HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Europe. End-year report 2006.Saint-Maurice: Institut de veille sanitaireGoogle Scholar
  17. Fowler MG, Lampe MA, Jamieson DJ, Kourtis AP, Rogers MF (2007) Reducing the risk of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission: past successes, current progress and challenges, and future directions. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 197(3 Suppl):S3–S9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fowler MG, Newell ML (2002) Breast-feeding and HIV-1 transmission in resource-limited settings. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 30(2):230–239Google Scholar
  19. French MA (2007) Disorders of immune reconstitution in patients with HIV infection responding to antiretroviral therapy. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 4(1):16–21MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gilks CF, Crowley S, Ekpini R, Gove S, Perriens J, Souteyrand Y et al. (2006) The WHO public-health approach to antiretroviral treatment against HIV in resource-limited settings. Lancet; 368(9534):505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Makumbi F, Watya S, Nalugoda F et al. (2007) Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet; 369(9562):657–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T, Bagenda D, Allen M, Nakabiito C et al. (1999) Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet; 354(9181):795–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Geretti AM (2006) HIV-1 subtypes: epidemiology and significance for HIV management. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 19(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jamieson DJ, Read JS, Kourtis AP, Durant TM, Lampe MA, Dominguez KL (2007) Cesarean delivery for HIV-infected women: recommendations and controversies. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 197(3 Suppl):S96–S100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanki PJ, Peeters M, Gueye-Ndiaye A (1997) Virology of HIV-1 and HIV-2: implications for Africa. AIDS; 11 Suppl B:S33–S42Google Scholar
  26. Koziel MJ, Peters MG (2007) Viral hepatitis in HIV infection. N Engl J Med 2007; 356(14):1445–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu Z, Lian Z, Zhao C (2006) Drug use and HIV/AIDS in China. Drug Alcohol Rev; 25(2):173–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luzuriaga K, Sullivan JL (2005) Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis; 40(3):466–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Montessori V, Press N, Harris M, Akagi L, Montaner JS (2004) Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. Can Med Assoc J; 170(2):229–238Google Scholar
  30. Myers G, MacInnes K, Korber B (1992) The emergence of simian/human immunodeficiency viruses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 8(3):373–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Paterson DL, Swindells S, Mohr J, Brester M, Vergis EN, Squier C et al. (2000) Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med; 133(1):21–30Google Scholar
  32. Pezzotti P, Phillips AN, Dorrucci M, Lepri AC, Galai N, Vlahov D et al. (1996) Category of exposure to HIV and age in the progression to AIDS: longitudinal study of 1199 people with known dates of seroconversion. HIV Italian Seroconversion Study Group. BMJ; 313(7057):583–586Google Scholar
  33. Pinkerton SD, Holtgrave DR, Pinkerton HJ (1997) Cost-effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis after occupational exposure to HIV. Arch Intern Med; 157(17):1972–1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Peeters M (2000) Recombinant HIV-1 Sequences: their role in global epidemic. In: Kuiken C FBHBE, editor. HIV-1 Sequence Compendium. Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Los Alamos: 39–54Google Scholar
  35. Schacker T, Zeh J, Hu HL, Hill E, Corey L (1998) Frequency of symptomatic and asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 reactivations among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. J Infect Dis; 178(6):1616–1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ (2005) Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis; 5(9):558–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stebbing J, Moyle G (2003) The clades of HIV: their origins and clinical significance. AIDS Rev; 5(4):205–213Google Scholar
  38. Stover J, Bertozzi S, Gutierrez JP, Walker N, Stanecki KA, Greener R et al. (2006) The global impact of scaling up HIV/AIDS prevention programs in low- and middle-income countries. Science; 311(5766):1474–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. UNAIDS (2008) AIDS epidemic update : December 2007Google Scholar
  40. Wald A, Link K (2002) Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons: a meta-analysis. J Infect Dis; 185(1):45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Li X, Laeyendecker O et al. (2005) Rates of HIV-1 transmission per coital act, by stage of HIV-1 infection, in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis; 191(9):1403–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weller IV, Williams IG (2001) ABC of AIDS. Antiretroviral drugs. BMJ; 322(7299):1410–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlotte van den Berg
    • 1
  • Karen Lindenburg
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roel Coutinho
    • 2
  1. 1.Cluster Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Center for Infectious Disease Control, RIVMBilthovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations