Health Economics of Infectious Diseases

  • Robert WelteEmail author
  • Reiner Leidl
  • Wolfgang Greiner
  • Maarten Postma
Part of the Statistics for Biology and Health book series (SBH)


Due to technical innovations and demographic changes, many industrialized countries are facing problems in financing health-care costs. One way to guide decision maker in the allocation of their limited health-care budget is the use of economic evaluation . The economic evaluation of health technologies is a special discipline of health economics, which compares the technical efficiency of technologies in the health-care sector. The term technology covers everything from drugs to medical equipment to the design of intervention programs. Technical efficiency is achieved if with a minimum input (of resources) a given output is produced or if with a specific input a maximum of output (e.g., life years) is produced. Hence, technical efficiency considers both effectiveness and resource utilization. Only an effective technology can be efficient. Typically, in economic evaluations the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of a technology is estimated. The ICER is a measure for the technical efficiency of a technology and can be expressed, for example, as € 30,000 per life year gained (LYG) or US $ 15,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, reflecting the net costs (costs minus savings) of gaining one life year or QALY, respectively.


Economic Evaluation Discount Rate Vaccination Program Quality Adjust Life Year Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Welte
    • 1
    Email author
  • Reiner Leidl
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Greiner
    • 2
  • Maarten Postma
    • 3
  1. 1.Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH)Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management (IGM)NeuherbergGermany
  2. 2.Bielefeld School of Public Health, Health Care Management (AG5)University of BielefeldBielefeldGermany
  3. 3.Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy (GRIP)University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

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