Skip to main content

Health Education and Health Promotion: Key Concepts and Exemplary Evidence to Support Them

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Principles and Concepts of Behavioral Medicine

Abstract

Health is regarded as the result of an interaction between individual and environmental factors. While health education is the process of educating people about health and how they can influence their health, health promotion targets not only people but also their environments. Promoting health behavior can take place at the micro level (the personal level), the meso level (the organizational level, including e.g. families, schools and worksites) and at the macro level (the (inter)national level, including e.g. governments). Health education is one of the methods used in health promotion, with health promotion extending beyond just health education.

Models and theories that focus on understanding health and health behavior are of key importance for health education and health promotion. Different classes of models and theories can be distinguished, such as planning models, behavioral change models, and diffusion models. Within these models different topics and factors are relevant, ranging from health literacy, attitudes, social influences, self-efficacy, planning, and stages of change to evaluation, implementation, stakeholder involvement, and policy changes. Exemplary health promotion settings are schools, worksites, and healthcare, but also the domains that are involved with policy development. Main health promotion methods can involve a variety of different methods and approaches, such as counseling, brochures, eHealth, stakeholder involvement, consensus meetings, community ownership, panel discussions, and policy development. Because health education and health promotion should be theory- and evidence-based, personalized interventions are recommended to take empirical findings and proven theoretical assumptions into account.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aarts, H., Paulussen, T., & Schaalma, H. (1997). Physical exercise habit: On the conceptualization and formation of habitual health behaviours. Health Education Research, 12(3), 363.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Abraham, C., & Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27(3), 379–387.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Abraham, C., & Sheeran, P. (2003). Acting on intentions: The role of anticipated regret. The British Journal of Social Psychology, 42(Pt 4), 495–511.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Abraham, C., & Sheeran, P. (2005). The Health Belief Model. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviour (pp. 28–80). Berkshire: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abroms, L. C., & Maibach, E. W. (2008). The effectiveness of mass communication to change public behavior. Annual Review of Public Health, 29, 219–234.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Adams, J., & White, M. (2003). Are activity promotion interventions based on the transtheoretical model effective? A critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(2), 106–114.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Chicago: Dorsey Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aldana, S. G., Merrill, R. M., Price, K., Hardy, A., & Hager, R. (2005). Financial impact of a comprehensive multisite workplace health promotion program. Preventive Medicine, 40(2), 131–137.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Alderman, M. H., & Schoenbaum, E. E. (1975). Detection and treatment of hypertension at the work site. The New England Journal of Medicine, 293(2), 65–68.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Armitage, C. J. (2009). Is there utility in the transtheoretical model? British Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2), 195–210.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Armitage, C. J. (2004). Evidence that implementation intentions reduce dietary fat intake: A randomized trial. Health Psychology, 23(3), 319.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. The British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(Pt 4), 471–499.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Armstrong, N., & Powell, J. (2008). Preliminary test of an Internet-based diabetes self-management tool. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 14(3), 114–116.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Asch, S. E. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: I. A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs, 70(9), 1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ashford, S., Edmunds, J., & French, D. P. (2010). What is the best way to change self-efficacy to promote lifestyle and recreational physical activity? A systematic review with meta-analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15(Pt 2), 265–288.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ausems, M., Mesters, I., van Breukelen, G., & De Vries, H. (2004). Effects of in-school and tailored out-of-school smoking prevention among Dutch vocational school students. Health Education Research, 19(1), 51–63.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Austin, J. T., & Vancouver, J. B. (1996). Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content. Psychological Bulletin, 120(3), 338.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aveyard, P., Massey, L., Parsons, A., Manaseki, S., & Griffin, C. (2009). The effect of Transtheoretical Model based interventions on smoking cessation. Social science and medicine, 68(3), 397–403.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Babbin, S. F., Harrington, M., Burditt, C., Redding, C., Paiva, A., Meier, K., Oatley, K., McGee, H., & Velicer, W. F. (2011). Prevention of alcohol use in middle school students: Psychometric assessment of the decisional balance inventory. Addictive Behaviors, 36(5), 543–546.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bagozzi, R. P. (1992). The self-regulation of attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55(2), 178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bagozzi, R. P., & Dholakia, U. (1999). Goal setting and goal striving in consumer behavior. Journal of Marketing, 63, 19–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baker, D. W., Parker, R. M., Williams, M. V., & Clark, W. S. (1998). Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 13(12), 791–798.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175–1184.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1997). Editorial. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12(1), 8–10.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bargh, J. A. (2005). Bypassing the will: Toward demystifying the nonconscious control of social behavior. In R. R. Hassin, J. S. Uleman, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The new unconscious (pp. 37–58). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., & Gottlieb, N. H. (2001). Intervention-mapping: Designing theory and evidence-based health promotion programs. Mountain View: Mayfield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., Gottlieb, N. H., & Fernández, M. E. (2011). Planning health promotion: An intervention mapping approach (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bentz, C. J., Bruce Bayley, K., Bonin, K. E., Fleming, L., Hollis, J. F., Hunt, J. S., LeBlanc, B., McAfee, T., Payne, N., & Siemienczuk, J. (2007). Provider feedback to improve 5A’s tobacco cessation in primary care: A cluster randomized clinical trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(3), 341–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berkman, L. F., & Syme, S. L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine-year follow-up study of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109(2), 186–204.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Beyer, J. M., & Trice, H. M. (1978). Implementing change: Alcoholism policies in work organization. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blissmer, B., & McAuley, E. (2002). Testing the requirements of stages of physical activity among adults: The comparative effectiveness of stage-matched, mismatched, standard care, and control interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(3), 181–189.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bodenheimer, T., Lorig, K., Holman, H., & Grumbach, K. (2002). Patient self-management of chronic disease in primary care. JAMA, 288(19), 2469–2475.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Boer, H., & Seydel, E. R. (1996). Protection motivation theory. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behavior (pp. 95–120). Buckingham: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bolman, C., Arwert, T. G., & Vollink, T. (2011). Adherence to prophylactic asthma medication: Habit strength and cognitions. Heart & Lung, 40(1), 63–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonfadelli, H. (2002). Medieninhaltsforschung: Grundlagen, Methoden, Anwendungen. Konstanz: UVK.

    Google Scholar 

  • Borland, R., Balmford, J., Segan, C., Livingston, P., & Owen, N. (2003). The effectiveness of personalized smoking cessation strategies for callers to a Quitline service. Addiction, 98(6), 837–846.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Botvin, G. J., Eng, A., & Williams, C. L. (1980). Preventing the onset of cigarette smoking through life skills training. Preventive Medicine, 9(1), 135–143.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Botvin, G. J., & Griffin, K. W. (2004). Life skills training: Empirical findings and future directions. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 25(2), 211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bracht, N. (1990). Community organization principles in health promotion: A five-stage model. In N. Bracht & L. Kingsbury (Eds.), Health promotion at the community level. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bracht, N. (1999). Health promotion at the community level: New advances. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brewer, N. T., Weinstein, N. D., Cuite, C. L., & Herrington, J. E. (2004). Risk perceptions and their relation to risk behavior. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27(2), 125.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brewer, N. T., Brewer, N. T., & Fazekas, K. I. (2007). Predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability: A theory-informed, systematic review. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 45(2–3), 107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brinn, M. P., Carson, K. V., Esterman, A. J., Chang, A. B., & Smith, B. J. (2010). Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 11, CD001006.

    Google Scholar 

  • Britt, E., Hudson, S. M., & Blampied, N. M. (2004). Motivational interviewing in health settings: A review. Patient Education and Counseling, 53(2), 147–155.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brodie, M., Flournoy, R. E., Altman, D. E., Blendon, R. J., Benson, J. M., & Rosenbaum, M. D. (2000). Health information, the Internet, and the digital divide. Health Affairs (Millwood), 19(6), 255–265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brouwer, W., Oenema, A., Raat, H., Crutzen, R., de Nooijer, J., de Vries, N. K., & Brug, J. (2010). Characteristics of visitors and revisitors to an Internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle intervention implemented for use by the general public. Health Education Research, 25(4), 585–595.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, T., & Summerbell, C. (2009). Systematic review of school-based interventions that focus on changing dietary intake and physical activity levels to prevent childhood obesity: An update to the obesity guidance produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Obesity Reviews, 10(1), 110–141.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brug, J., Lechner, L., & De Vries, H. (1995). Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption. Appetite, 25(3), 285.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brug, J., Steenhuis, I., van Assema, P., & de Vries, H. (1996). The impact of a computer-tailored nutrition intervention. Preventive Medicine, 25(3), 236–242.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brug, J., Steenhuis, I. H. M., Van Assema, P., Glanz, K., & De Vries, H. (1999). The impact of two computer tailored nutrition education interventions. Health Education Research, 14, 249–256.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brug, J., Conner, M., Harré, N., Kremers, S., McKellar, S., & Whitelaw, S. (2005). The transtheoretical model and stages of change: A critique. Observations by five commentators on the paper by Adams, J., & White, M. (2004). Why don’t stage-based activity promotion interventions work? Health Education Research, 20(2), 244.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bruvold, W. H. (1993). A meta-analysis of adolescent smoking prevention programs. American Journal of Public Health, 83(6), 872.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bryan, A., Fisher, J. D., & Fisher, W. A. (2002). Tests of the mediational role of preparatory safer sexual behavior in the context of the theory of planned behavior. Health Psychology, 21(1), 71–80.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, M. K., Demark-Wahnefried, W., Symons, M., Kalsbeek, W. D., Dodds, J., Cowan, A., Jackson, B., Motsinger, B., Hoben, K., Lashley, J., Demissie, S., & McClelland, J. W. (1999). Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevention of cancer: The Black Churches United for Better Health project. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1390–1396.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Chaiken, S., Liberman, A., & Eagly, A. H. (1989). Heuristic and systematic information processing within and beyond the persuasion context. In J. S. Uleman & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought. New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Charles, C., Whelan, T., & Gafni, A. (1999). What do we mean by partnership in making decisions about treatment? BMJ, 319(7212), 780–782.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Chinn, M. D., & Fairlie, R. W. (2007). The determinants of the global digital divide: A cross-country analysis of computer and internet penetration. Oxford Economic Papers, 16, f-44.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Collins, J. L. (1982, March). Self-efficacy and ability in achievement behavior. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conner, M., & Norman, P. (2005). Predicting health behaviour: Research and practice with social cognition models. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conner, M., & Armitage, C. J. (1998). Extending the theory of planned behavior: A review and avenues for further research. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(15), 1429.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Conner, M., Godin, G., Sheeran, P., & Germain, M. (2013). Some feelings are more important: Cognitive attitudes, affective attitudes, anticipated affect, and blood donation. Health Psychology, 32(3), 264.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coster, S., & Norman, I. (2009). Cochrane reviews of educational and self-management interventions to guide nursing practice: A review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(4), 508–528.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cramer, J. A. (2004). A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. Diabetes Care, 27(5), 1218–1224.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cranney, M., Warren, E., Barton, S., Gardner, K., & Walley, T. (2001). Why do GPs not implement evidence-based guidelines? A descriptive study. Family Practice, 18(4), 359–363.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cutrona, S. L., Choudhry, N. K., Stedman, M., Servi, A., Liberman, J. N., Brennan, T., Fischer, M. A., Alan Brookhart, M., & Shrank, W. H. (2010). Physician effectiveness in interventions to improve cardiovascular medication adherence: A systematic review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(10), 1090–1096.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • de Bruijn, G. J., Kremers, S. P., De Vries, H., Van Mechelen, W., & Brug, J. (2007). Associations of social-environmental and individual-level factors with adolescent soft drink consumption: Results from the SMILE study. Health Education Research, 22(2), 227–237.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Meij, J. S., Chinapaw, M. J., Kremers, S. P., Jurg, M. E., & Van Mechelen, W. (2010). Promoting physical activity in children: The stepwise development of the primary school-based JUMP-in intervention applying the RE-AIM evaluation framework. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(12), 879–887.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Nooijer, J., Lechner, L., & de Vries, H. (2002). Early detection of cancer: Knowledge and behavior among Dutch adults. Cancer Detection and Prevention, 26(5), 362–369.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vet, E., de Nooijer, J., de Vries, N. K., & Brug, J. (2008a). Testing the transtheoretical model for fruit intake: Comparing web-based tailored stage-matched and stage-mismatched feedback. Health Education Research, 23(2), 218–227.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vet, E., De Nooijer, J., De Vries, N. K., & Brug, J. (2008b). Do the transtheoretical processes of change predict transitions in stages of change for fruit intake? Health Education & Behavior, 35(5), 603–618.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Vet, E., Gebhardt, W. A., Sinnige, J., Van Puffelen, A., Van Lettow, B., & de Wit, J. B. (2011). Implementation intentions for buying, carrying, discussing and using condoms: The role of the quality of plans. Health Education Research, 26(3), 443–455.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., & Backbier, E. (1994). Self-efficacy as an important determinant of quitting among pregnant women who smoke: The phi-pattern. Preventive Medicine, 23(2), 167–174.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., & Brug, J. (1999). Computer-tailored interventions motivating people to adopt health promoting behaviours: Introduction to a new approach. Patient Education and Counseling, 36(2), 99–105.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., & van Dillen, S. (2002). Prevention of Lyme disease in Dutch children: Analysis of determinants of tick inspection by parents. Preventive Medicine, 35(2), 160–165.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., & van Dillen, S. (2007). I PLAN: Planning the prevention of Lyme disease, a health promotion approach. In P. van Nitch (Ed.), Research on Lyme disease. New York: Nova Science.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., Dijkstra, M., & Kuhlman, P. (1988). Self-efficacy: The third factor besides attitude and subjective norm as a predictor of behavioural intentions. Health Education Research, 3(3), 273.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., Backbier, E., Kok, G., & Dijkstra, M. (1995). The impact of social influences in the context of attitude, self-efficacy, intention and previous behavior as predictors of smoking onset. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 237–257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., Mudde, A. N., Dijkstra, A., & Willemsen, M. C. (1998). Differential beliefs, perceived social influences, and self-efficacy expectations among smokers in various motivational phases. Preventive Medicine, 27(5 Pt 1), 681–689.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., Mudde, A., Leijs, I., Charlton, A., Vartiainen, E., Buijs, G., Clemente, M. P., Storm, H., González Navarro, A., Nebot, M., Prins, T., & Kremers, S. (2003). The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (EFSA): An example of integral prevention. Health Education Research, 18(5), 611–626.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., Lezwijn, J., Hol, M., & Honing, C. (2005). Skin cancer prevention: Behaviour and motives of Dutch adolescents. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14(1), 39–50.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., Candel, M., Engels, R., & Mercken, L. (2006). Challenges to the peer influence paradigm: Results for 12–13 year olds from six European countries from the European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach study. Tobacco Control, 15(2), 83–89.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., van’t Riet, J., Panday, S., & Reubsaet, A. (2007). Access point analysis in smoking and nonsmoking adolescents: Findings from the European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach study. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 16(3), 257–265.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., Kremers, S., Smeets, T., & Reubsaet, A. (2008a). Clustering of diet, physical activity and smoking and a general willingness to change. Psychology & Health, 23(3), 265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., van’t Riet, J., Spigt, M., Metsemakers, J., van den Akker, M., Vermunt, J. K., & Kremers, S. (2008b). Clusters of lifestyle behaviors: Results from the Dutch SMILE study. Preventive Medicine, 46(3), 203–208.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, H., Kremers, S. P. J., Smeets, T., Brug, J., & Eijmael, K. (2008c). The effectiveness of tailored feedback and action plans in an intervention addressing multiple health behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion, 22(6), 417–425.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dean, A. J., Walters, J., & Hall, A. (2010). A systematic review of interventions to enhance medication adherence in children and adolescents with chronic illness. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 95(9), 717–723.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Della Mea, V. (2001). What is e-Health (2): The death of telemedicine? Journal of Medical Internet Research, 3(2), e22.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Dempsey, A. R., Johnson, S. S., & Westhoff, C. L. (2011). Predicting oral contraceptive continuation using the transtheoretical model of health behavior change. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 43(1), 23–29.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dictionary, O. E. (2010). “Mass media, n.”, Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dijk, F., & de Vries, H. (2009). Smoke alert: A computer-tailored smoking-cessation intervention for Dutch adolescents. Documentation of a FCHE workshop held in Berlin, 18–19 September 2008. Research and Practice of Health Promotion, 14, 34–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dijkstra, A. (2005). Working mechanisms of computer-tailored health education: Evidence from smoking cessation. Health Education Research, 20(5), 527–539.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dijkstra, A., & De Vries, H. (1999). The development of computer-generated tailored interventions. Patient Education and Counseling, 36(2), 193–203.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dijkstra, A., & De Vries, H. (2000). Subtypes of precontemplating smokers defined by different long-term plans to change their smoking behavior. Health Education Research, 15(4), 423–434.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dijkstra, A., Bakker, M., & De Vries, H. (1997). Subtypes within a sample of precontemplating smokers: A preliminary extension of the stages of change. Addictive Behaviors, 22(3), 327–337.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dijkstra, A., De Vries, H., Roijackers, J., & van Breukelen, G. (1998). Tailored interventions to communicate stage-matched information to smokers in different motivational stages. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 549–557.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dijkstra, A., Conijn, B., & De Vries, H. (2006). A match–mismatch test of a stage model of behaviour change in tobacco smoking. Addiction, 101(7), 1035–1043.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • DiMatteo, M. R. (2004). Social support and patient adherence to medical treatment: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 23(2), 207–218.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dlamini, S., Taylor, M., Mkhize, N., Huver, R., Sathiparsad, R., de Vries, H., Naidoo, K., & Jinabhai, C. (2009). Gender factors associated with sexual abstinent behaviour of rural South African high school going youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Health Education Research, 24(3), 450–460.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dunton, G. F., Lagloire, R., & Robertson, T. (2009). Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the statewide dissemination of a school-based physical activity and nutrition curriculum: “Exercise Your Options”. American Journal of Health Promotion, 23(4), 229–232.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M., & Hansen, W. B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: Implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research, 18(2), 237–256.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Epstein, S. (1994). Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. The American Psychologist, 49(8), 709–724.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Etter, J. F. (2009). Comparing computer-tailored, internet-based smoking cessation counseling reports with generic, untailored reports: A randomized trial. Journal of Health Communication, 14(7), 646–657.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Evans, R. I. (1976). Smoking in children: Developing a social psychological strategy of deterrence. Preventive Medicine, 5(1), 122–127.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Evans-Whipp, T., Beyers, J. M., Lloyd, S., Lafazia, A. N., Toumbourou, J. W., Arthur, M. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2004). A review of school drug policies and their impact on youth substance use. Health Promotion International, 19(2), 227.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eysenbach, G. (2005). The law of attrition. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 7(1), e11.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Faggiano, F., Vigna-Taglianti, F. D., Versino, E., Zambon, A., Borraccino, A., & Lemma, P. (2008). School-based prevention for illicit drugs use: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 46(5), 385–396.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A., Taylor, C. B., Haskell, W. L., Williams, P. T., Maccoby, N., & Wood, P. D. (1990). Effects of communitywide education on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The Stanford Five-City Project. JAMA, 264(3), 359–365.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fazio, R. H. (1990). Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behaviour: The MODE model as an integrative framework. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 75–109). San Diego: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feifer, C., Ornstein, S. M., Jenkins, R. G., Wessell, A., Corley, S. T., Nemeth, L. S., Roylance, L., Nietert, P. J., & Liszka, H. (2006). The logic behind a multimethod intervention to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines in a nationwide network of primary care practices. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 29(1), 65–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading: Addison-Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fletcher, A., Bonell, C., & Hargreaves, J. (2008). School effects on young people’s drug use: A systematic review of intervention and observational studies. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 42(3), 209–220.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fleuren, M., Wiefferink, K., & Paulussen, T. (2004). Determinants of innovation within health care organizations: Literature review and Delphi study. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 16(2), 107–123.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Floyd, D. L., Prentice-Dunn, S., & Rogers, R. W. (2000). A meta-analysis of research on protection motivation theory. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(2), 407–429.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fox, M. P. (2009). A systematic review of the literature reporting on studies that examined the impact of interactive, computer-based patient education programs. Patient Education and Counseling, 77(1), 6–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fransen, G. A. J., Mesters, I., Janssen, M. J. R., Knottnerus, J. A., & Muris, J. W. M. (2009). Which patient-related factors determine self-perceived patient adherence to prescribed dyspepsia medication? Health Education Research, 24(5), 788–798.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gaglio, B., Shoup, J. A., & Glasgow, R. E. (2013). The RE-AIM framework: A systematic review of use over time. American Journal of Public Health, 103(6), e38–e46.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Gagne, C., & Godin, G. (2000). The theory of planned behavior: Some measurement issues concerning belief-based variables. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(10), 2173–2193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2008). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Glasgow, R. E., Vogt, T. M., & Boles, S. M. (1999). Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: The RE-AIM framework. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1322–1327.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., & Marcus, A. C. (2003). Why don’t we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93(8), 1261–1267.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Glynn, T. J. (1989). Essential elements of school-based smoking prevention programs. The Journal of School Health, 59(5), 181–188.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Godin, G., & Conner, M. (2008). Intention-behavior relationship based on epidemiologic indices: An application to physical activity. American Journal of Health Promotion, 22(3), 180–182.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Godin, G., & Kok, G. (1996). The theory of planned behavior: A review of its applications to health-related behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11(2), 87–98.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goebbels, A. F., Goebbels, A. F. G., Nicholson, J. M., Walsh, K., & De Vries, H. (2008). Teachers’ reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect: Behaviour and determinants. Health Education Research, 23(6), 941–951.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goetzel, R. Z., & Ozminkowski, R. J. (2008). The health and cost benefits of work site health-promotion programs. Annual Review of Public Health, 29, 303–323.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gollwitzer, P. M. (1990). Action phases and mind-sets. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 53–92). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54(7), 493.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A Meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grant, R. W., Wald, J. S., Poon, E. G., Schnipper, J. L., Gandhi, T. K., Volk, L. A., & Middleton, B. (2006). Design and implementation of a web-based patient portal linked to an ambulatory care electronic health record: Patient gateway for diabetes collaborative care. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 8(5), 576–586.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Green, L. W. (1980). Health education planning: A diagnostic approach. Palo Alto: Mayfield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (1991). Health promotion planning: An educational and environmental approach. Mountain View: Mayfield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. (1999). Health promotion planning: An educational and ecological approach. Mountain View: Mayfield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (2005). Health program planning: An educational and ecological approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grilli, R., Ramsay, C., & Minozzi, S. (2002). Mass media interventions: Effects on health services utilisation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD000389.

    Google Scholar 

  • Groeneveld, I. F., Proper, K. I., Van der Beek, A. J., & Van Mechelen, W. (2010). Sustained body weight reduction by an individual-based lifestyle intervention for workers in the construction industry at risk for cardiovascular disease: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine, 51(3-4), 240–246.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grol, R., & Jones, R. (2000). Twenty years of implementation research. Family Practice, 17(Suppl 1), S32–S35.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grube, J. W., Morgan, M., & McGree, S. T. (1986). Attitudes and normative beliefs as predictors of smoking intentions and behaviours: A test of three models. The British Journal of Social Psychology, 25(Pt 2), 81–93.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hagger, M. S., Lonsdale, A. J., Hein, V., Koka, A., Lintunen, T., Pasi, H., Lindwall, M., Rudolfsson, L., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2011). Predicting alcohol consumption and binge drinking in company employees: An application of planned behaviour and self-determination theories. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17(2), 379–407.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hall, K. L., & Rossi, J. S. (2008). Meta-analytic examination of the strong and weak principles across 48 health behaviors. Preventive Medicine, 46(3), 266–274.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hallfors, D., & Godette, D. (2002). Will the ‘principles of effectiveness’ improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study. Health Education Research, 17(4), 461–470.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Handley, M., MacGregor, K., Schillinger, D., Sharifi, C., Wong, S., & Bodenheimer, T. (2006). Using action plans to help primary care patients adopt healthy behaviors: A descriptive study. Journal of American Board of Family Medicine, 19(3), 224–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hansen, W. B. (1992). School-based substance abuse prevention: A review of the state of the art in curriculum, 1980–1990. Health Education Research, 7(3), 403–430.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Harakeh, Z., Scholte, R. H., Vermulst, A. A., de Vries, H., & Engels, R. C. (2004). Parental factors and adolescents’ smoking behavior: An extension of the theory of planned behavior. Preventive Medicine, 39(5), 951–961.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Harden, A., Peersman, G., Oliver, S., Mauthner, M., & Oakley, A. (1999). A systematic review of the effectiveness of health promotion interventions in the workplace. Occupational Medicine (London), 49(8), 540–548.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harting, J., Rutten, G. M., Rutten, S. T., & Kremers, S. P. (2009). A qualitative application of the diffusion of innovations theory to examine determinants of guideline adherence among physical therapists. Physical Therapy, 89(3), 221–232.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hawkins, R. P., Kreuter, M., Resnicow, K., Fishbein, M., & Dijkstra, A. (2008). Understanding tailoring in communicating about health. Health Education Research, 23(3), 454–466.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • US Department of Health and Human Services. (1991). Healthy people 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives and healthy schools. Journal of School Health, 61(7), 298–328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heckhausen, H. (1991). Motivation and action. New York: Springer.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Helmink, J. H., Meis, J. J., de Weerdt, I., Visser, F. N., de Vries, N. K., & Kremers, S. P. (2010). Development and implementation of a lifestyle intervention to promote physical activity and healthy diet in the Dutch general practice setting: The BeweegKuur programme. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 49.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Henderson, V. (1966). The nature of nursing. New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hendriksen, E. S., Pettifor, A., Lee, S. J., Coates, T. J., & Rees, H. V. (2007). Predictors of condom use among young adults in South Africa: The Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit National Youth Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 97(7), 1241–1248.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Herzog, T. A., & Blagg, C. O. (2007). Are most precontemplators contemplating smoking cessation? Assessing the validity of the stages of change. Health Psychology, 26(2), 222.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hettema, J., Steele, J., & Miller, W. R. (2005). Motivational interviewing. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 91–111.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hochbaum, G. M. (1971). Measurement of effectiveness of health education activites. International Journal of Health Education, 2, 54–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (1998). Bridging the racial divide on the Internet. Science, 280, 390–391.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Wiers, R. W. (2008). Impulsive versus reflective influences on health behavior: A theoretical framework and empirical review. Health Psychology Review, 2, 111–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holm, K., Kremers, S. P., & de Vries, H. (2003). Why do Danish adolescents take up smoking? European Journal of Public Health, 13(1), 67–74.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Horowitz, S. M. (2003). Applying the transtheoretical model to pregnancy and STD prevention: A review of the literature. American Journal of Health Promotion, 17(5), 304–328.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hoving, E. F., Mudde, A. N., & de Vries, H. (2006). Smoking and the O pattern; predictors of transitions through the stages of change. Health Education Research, 21(3), 305–314.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. L., & Kelley, H. H. (1953). Communication and persuasion: Psychological studies of opinion change. New Haven: Yale UP.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huver, R. M. E., Engels, R. C. M. E., & de Vries, H. (2006). Are anti-smoking parenting practices related to adolescent smoking cognitions and behavior? Health Education Research, 21(1), 66–77.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Huver, R. M., Engels, R. C. M. E., Vermulst, A. A., & de Vries, H. (2007). Is parenting style a context for smoking-specific parenting practices? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 89(2-3), 116–125.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hyman, H. H., & Sheatsley, P. B. (1947). Some reasons why information campaigns fail. Public Opinion Quarterly, 11, 412–423.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ito, K. E., & Brown, J. D. (2010). To friend or not to friend: Using new media for adolescent health promotion. North Carolina Medical Journal, 71(4), 367–372.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, C., Lawton, R., Knapp, P., Raynor, D. K., Conner, M., Lowe, C., & Closs, S. J. (2005). Beyond intention: Do specific plans increase health behaviours in patients in primary care? A study of fruit and vegetable consumption. Social Science & Medicine, 60(10), 2383.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • James, S., Reddy, P., Ruiter, R. A., McCauley, A., & Borne, B. V. D. (2006). The impact of an HIV and AIDS life skills program on secondary school students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. AIDS Educ Prev, 18(4), 281–294.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Janis, I. L., & Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice, and commitment. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Janssen, E., van Osch, L., de Vries, H., & Lechner, L. (2011). Measuring risk perceptions of skin cancer: Reliability and validity of different operationalizations. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16(Pt 1), 92–112.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Janssen, E., van Osch, L., Lechner, L., Candel, M., & de Vries, H. (2012). Thinking versus feeling: Differentiating between cognitive and affective components of perceived cancer risk. Psychology & Health, 27(7), 767–783.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Janssen, E., van Osch, L., de Vries, H., & Lechner, L. (2013). Examining direct and indirect pathways to health behaviour: The influence of cognitive and affective probability beliefs. Psychology & Health, 28(5), 546–560.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Janz, N. K., & Becker, M. H. (1984). The Health Belief Model: A decade later. Health Education Quarterly, 11(1), 1–47.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, C. E., Mues, K. E., Mayne, S. L., & Kiblawi, A. N. (2008). Cervical cancer screening among immigrants and ethnic minorities: A systematic review using the Health Belief Model. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 12(3), 232–241.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Joosten, E. A., DeFuentes-Merillas, L., De Weert, G. H., Sensky, T., Van Der Staak, C. P. F., & de Jong, C. A. (2008). Systematic review of the effects of shared decision-making on patient satisfaction, treatment adherence and health status. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77(4), 219–226.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jurg, M. E., Kremers, S. P., Candel, M. J., Van der Wal, M. F., & Meij, J. S. D. (2006). A controlled trial of a school-based environmental intervention to improve physical activity in Dutch children: JUMP-in, kids in motion. Health Promotion International, 21(4), 320.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kamarck, T. W., Manuck, S. B., & Jennings, J. R. (1990). Social support reduces cardiovascular reactivity to psychological challenge: A laboratory model. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52(1), 42.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kemp, R., Kirov, G., Everitt, B., Hayward, P., & David, A. (1998). Randomised controlled trial of compliance therapy. 18-month follow-up. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 413–419.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • King, E. S., Rimer, B. K., Seay, J., Balshem, A., & Engstrom, P. F. (1994). Promoting mammography use through progressive interventions: Is it effective? American Journal of Public Health, 84(1), 104–106.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kirby, D. B., Laris, B. A., & Rolleri, L. A. (2007). Sex and HIV education programs: Their impact on sexual behaviors of young people throughout the world. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(3), 206–217.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Knai, C., Pomerleau, J., Lock, K., & McKee, M. (2006). Getting children to eat more fruit and vegetables: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 42(2), 85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kok, G., Lo, S. H., Peters, G. J. Y., & Ruiter, R. A. (2011). Changing energy-related behavior: An intervention mapping approach. Energy Policy, 39, 5280–5286.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolbe, L. J. (1985). Why school health education? An empirical point of view. Health Education, 16(2), 116–120.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kremers, S. P. (2010). Theory and practice in the study of influences on energy balance-related behaviors. Patient Education and Counseling, 79(3), 291–298.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kremers, S. P., & Brug, J. (2008). Habit strength of physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 20(1), 5–14. Discussion 14-7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kremers, S. P. J., Mudde, A. N., & de Vries, H. (2001). Subtypes within the precontemplation stage of adolescent smoking acquisition. Addictive Behaviors, 26(2), 237.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kremers, S. P., De Bruijn, G. J., Visscher, T. L., Van Mechelen, W., De Vries, N. K., & Brug, J. (2006). Environmental influences on energy balance-related behaviors: A dual-process view. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3, 9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kreuter, M. W., & Strecher, V. J. (1996). Do tailored behavior change messages enhance the effectiveness of health risk appraisal? Results from a randomized trial. Health Education Research, 11(1), 97–105.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kreuter, M. W., Farrell, D. W., Olevitch, L. R., & Brennan, L. K. (2000). Tailoring health messages: Customizing communication with computer technology. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kroeze, W., Werkman, A., & Brug, J. (2006). A systematic review of randomized trials on the effectiveness of computer-tailored education on physical activity and dietary behaviors. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31(3), 205–223.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kruger, S. (1991). The patient educator role in nursing. Applied Nursing Research, 4(1), 19–24.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kwak, L., Kremers, S. P., van Baak, M. A., & Brug, J. (2007). Formation of implementation intentions promotes stair use. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(3), 254.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (2006). Enhancing the benefits and overcoming the pitfalls of goal setting. Organizational Dynamics, 35(4), 332–340.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leung, L. (2008). Internet embeddedness: Links with online health information seeking, expectancy value/quality of health information websites, and Internet usage patterns. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(5), 565–569.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leventhal, H. (1970). Findings and theory in the study of fear communications. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leventhal, H., & Cameron, L. (1987). Behavioral theories and the problem of compliance. Patient Education and Counseling, 10(2), 117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leventhal, H., Nerenz, D. R., & Steele, D. J. (1984). Illness representation and coping with health threats. In A. Baum, S. E. Taylor, & J. E. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and health (pp. 219–252). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, B. A., Williams, D. M., Neighbors, C. J., Jakicic, J. M., & Marcus, B. H. (2010). Cost analysis of Internet vs. print interventions for physical activity promotion. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(3), 246–249.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Lippke, S., & Plotnikoff, R. C. (2012). Testing two principles of the health action process approach in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Health Psychology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lippke, S., & Ziegelmann, J. P. (2008). Theory-based health behavior change: Developing, testing, and applying theories for evidence-based interventions. Applied Psychology, 57(4), 698–716.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J. P., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Initiation and maintenance of physical exercise: Stage-specific effects of a planning intervention. Research in Sports Medicine, 12(3), 221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J. P., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Stage-specific adoption and maintenance of physical activity: Testing a three-stage model. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 585–603.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lippke, S., Schwarzer, R., Ziegelmann, J. P., Scholz, U., & Schüz, B. (2010). Testing stage-specific effects of a stage-matched intervention: A randomized controlled trial targeting physical exercise and its predictors. Health Education & Behavior, 37(4), 533–546.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu, L. L., & Park, D. C. (2004). Aging and medical adherence: The use of automatic processes to achieve effortful things. Psychology and Aging, 19(2), 318–325.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey. The American Psychologist, 57(9), 705–717.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lotrean, L. M., Dijk, F., Mesters, I., Ionut, C., & De Vries, H. (2010). Evaluation of a peer-led smoking prevention programme for Romanian adolescents. Health Education Research, 25(5), 803.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2003). Planning and self-efficacy in the adoption and maintenance of breast self-examination: A longitudinal study on self-regulatory cognitions. Psychology & Health, 18(1), 93–108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacGregor, K., Handley, M., Wong, S., Sharifi, C., Gjeltema, K., Schillinger, D., & Bodenheimer, T. (2006). Behavior-change action plans in primary care: A feasibility study of clinicians. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 19, 215–223.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marks, R., Allegrante, J. P., & Lorig, K. (2005). A review and synthesis of research evidence for self-efficacy-enhancing interventions for reducing chronic disability: Implications for health education practice (part II). Health Promotion Practice, 6(2), 148–156.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marlatt, G. A., & George, W. H. (1984). Relapse prevention: Introduction and overview of the model. British Journal of Addiction, 79(3), 261–273.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, S. J., & Biddle, S. J. (2001). The transtheoretical model of behavior change: A meta-analysis of applications to physical activity and exercise. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23(4), 229–246.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Martinez, M. (2008). High attrition rates in e-learning: Challenges, predictors, and solutions (p. 15). Santa Rosa: The E-Learning Developers’ Journal.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mays, D., Streisand, R., Walker, L. R., Prokhorov, A. V., & Tercyak, K. P. (2012). Cigarette smoking among adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Strategies for behavioral prevention and intervention. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 26(2), 148–153.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McGuire, W. J. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. II). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie, J. F., & Smeltzer, J. L. (2001). Planning, implementing and evaluating health promotion programs. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

    Google Scholar 

  • McLean, S. M., Burton, M., Bradley, L., & Littlewood, C. (2010). Interventions for enhancing adherence with physiotherapy: A systematic review. Manual Therapy, 15(6), 514–521.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McLeroy, K. R., Bibeau, D., Steckler, A., & Glanz, K. (1988). An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Education Quarterly, 15(4), 351–377.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mercken, L., Snijders, T. A., Steglich, C., & de Vries, H. (2009). Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior: Social network analyses in six European countries. Social Science & Medicine, 69(10), 1506.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mercken, L., Candel, M., Van Osch, L., & De Vries, H. (2010). No smoke without fire: The impact of future friends on adolescent smoking behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16(Pt 1), 170–188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 67, 371–378.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people to change (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milne, S., Sheeran, P., & Orbell, S. (2000). Prediction and intervention in health-related behavior: A meta-analytic review of protection motivation theory. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(1), 106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milne, S., Orbell, S., & Sheeran, P. (2002). Combining motivational and volitional interventions to promote exercise participation: Protection motivation theory and implementation intentions. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7(Pt 2), 163–184.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Montaño, D. E., & Kasprzyk, D. (2008). Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior and the integrated behavioral model. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moritz, S. E., Feltz, D. L., Fahrbach, K. R., & Mack, D. E. (2000). The relation of self-efficacy measures to sport performance: A meta-analytic review. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(3), 280–294.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Morrison, V., & Bennett, P. (2008). An introduction to health psychology (2nd ed.). London: Pearson Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mulvaney, S. A., Rothman, R. L., Wallston, K. A., Lybarger, C., & Dietrich, M. S. (2010). An internet-based program to improve self-management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 33(3), 602–604.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Newman, I. M., Martin, G. L., & Ang, J. (1982). The role of attitudes and social norms in adolescent cigarette smoking. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 95(715), 618–621.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ni Mhurchu, C., Aston, L. M., & Jebb, S. A. (2010). Effects of worksite health promotion interventions on employee diets: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 10(62), 1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nichols, J., Schutte, N. S., Brown, R. F., Dennis, C. L., & Price, I. (2009). The impact of a self-efficacy intervention on short-term breast-feeding outcomes. Health Education & Behavior, 36(2), 250–258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nigg, C. R., Albright, C., Williams, R., Nichols, C., Renda, G., Stevens, V. J., & Vogt, T. M. (2010). Are physical activity and nutrition indicators of the checklist of health promotion environments at worksites (CHEW) associated with employee obesity among hotel workers? Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52(Suppl. 1), S4–S7.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Noar, S. M., & Harrington, N. G. (2012). eHealth applications. New York: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Noar, S. M., Benac, C. N., & Harris, M. S. (2007). Does tailoring matter? Meta-analytic review of tailored print health behavior change interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 133(4), 673–693.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Noar, S. M., Black, H. G., & Pierce, L. B. (2009). Efficacy of computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions: A meta-analysis. AIDS, 23(1), 107.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Noar, S. M., Webb, E. M., Van Stee, S. K., Redding, C. A., Feist-Price, S., Crosby, R., & Troutman, A. (2011). Using computer technology for HIV prevention among African-Americans: Development of a tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS). Health Education Research, 26(3), 393–406.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Norman, G. J., Velicer, W. F., Fava, J. L., & Prochaska, J. O. (2000). Cluster subtypes within stage of change in a representative sample of smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 25(2), 183.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Norman, P., Boer, H., & Seydel, E. R. (2005). Protection motivation theory. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behavior (pp. 81–126). London: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Norris, S. L., Engelgau, M. M., & Narayan, K. V. (2001). Effectiveness of self-management training in type 2 diabetes a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care, 24(3), 561–587.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Norris, S. L., Lau, J., Smith, S. J., Schmid, C. H., & Engelgau, M. M. (2002). Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control. Diabetes Care, 25(7), 1159–1171.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • O’Leary, A. (1985). Self-efficacy and health. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23(4), 437.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Oei, T. P., & Burrow, T. (2000). Alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy: A test of specificity theory. Addictive Behaviors, 25(4), 499–507.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Oenema, A., Brug, J., & Lechner, L. (2001). Web-based tailored nutrition education: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Health Education Research, 16(6), 647–660.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Oostveen, T., Knibbe, R., & de Vries, H. (1996). Social influences on young adults’ alcohol consumption: Norms, modeling, pressure, socializing, and conformity. Addictive Behaviors, 21(2), 187–197.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Orbell, S., & Sheeran, P. (1998). ‘Inclined abstainers’: A problem for predicting health-related behaviour. The British Journal of Social Psychology, 37(Pt 2), 151–165.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Panday, S., Reddy, S. P., Ruiter, R. A., Bergström, E., & de Vries, H. (2005). Determinants of smoking cessation among adolescents in South Africa. Health Education Research, 20(5), 586–599.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Parcel, G. S., Eriksen, M. P., Lovato, C. Y., Gottlieb, N. H., Brink, S. G., & Green, L. W. (1989). The diffusion of school-based tobacco-use prevention programs: Project description and baseline data. Health Education Research, 4(1), 111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parker, R. M., & Jacobson, T. A. (2000). The role of health literacy in narrowing the treatment gap for hypercholesterolemia. The American Journal of Managed Care, 6(12), 1340–1342.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pelletier, K. R. (2009). A review and analysis of the clinical and cost-effectiveness studies of comprehensive health promotion and disease management programs at the worksite: Update VII 2004–2008. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 51(7), 822–837.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perry, C. L., Kelder, S. H., & Klepp, K. I. (1994). Community-wide cardiovascular disease prevention in young people: Long-term outcomes of the class of 1989 study. European Journal of Public Health, 4(3), 188–194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perry, C. L., Williams, C. L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Toomey, T. L., Komro, K. A., Anstine, P. S., McGovern, P. G., Finnegan, J. R., Forster, J. L., Wagenaar, A. C., & Wolfson, M. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a communitywide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86(7), 956–965.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Peters, L. W., Wiefferink, C. H., Hoekstra, F., Buijs, G. J., ten Dam, G. T., & Paulussen, T. G. (2009). A review of similarities between domain-specific determinants of four health behaviors among adolescents. Health Education Research, 24(2), 198–223.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, A. V., Jr., Kealey, K. A., Mann, S. L., Marek, P. M., & Sarason, I. G. (2000). Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project: Long-term randomized trial in school-based tobacco use prevention – Results on smoking. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92(24), 1979–1991.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). Communication and persuasion, central and peripheral routes to attitude change. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pinto, A. M., Heinberg, L. J., Coughlin, J. W., Fava, J. L., & Guarda, A. S. (2008). The Eating Disorder Recovery Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (EDRSQ): Change with treatment and prediction of outcome. Eating Behaviors, 9(2), 143.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Plotnikoff, R. C., Lippke, S., Courneya, K. S., Birkett, N., & Sigal, R. J. (2008). Physical activity and social cognitive theory: A test in a population sample of adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Applied Psychology, 57(4), 628–643.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Plotnikoff, R. C., Lippke, S., Johnson, S. T., & Courneya, K. S. (2010a). Physical activity and stages of change: A longitudinal test in types 1 and 2 diabetes samples. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40(2), 138–149.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Plotnikoff, R. C., Lippke, S., Trinh, L., Courneya, K. S., Birkett, N., & Sigal, R. J. (2010b). Protection motivation theory and the prediction of physical activity among adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in a large population sample. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15(Pt 3), 643–661.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pomp, S., Lippke, S., Fleig, L., & Schwarzer, R. (2010). Synergistic effects of intention and depression on action control: Longitudinal predictors of exercise after rehabilitation. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 2, 78–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Presson, C. C., Chassin, L., Sherman, S. J., Olshavsky, R., Bensenberg, M., & Corty, E. (1984). Predictors of adolescents’ intentions to smoke: Age, sex, race, and regional differences. The International Journal of the Addictions, 19(5), 503–519.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elders, M. J. (1994). Preventing tobacco use among young people. A report of the Surgeon General. Executive summary. MMWR – Recommendations and Reports, 43(RR-4), 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Price, V., & Zaller, J. (1993). Who gets the news? Alternative measures of news reception and their implications for research. Public Opinion Quarterly, 57(2), 133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 390–395.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1997). The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12(1), 38–48.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Rossi, J. S., Goldstein, M. G., Marcus, B. H., Rakowski, W., Fiore, C., Harlow, L. L., Redding, C. A., Rosenbloom, D., & Rossi, S. R. (1994). Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychology, 13(1), 39–46.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Redding, C., Rossi, J. S., Goldstein, M., DePue, J., Greene, G. W., Rossi, S. R., Sun, X., & Fava, J. L. (2005). Stage-based expert systems to guide a population of primary care patients to quit smoking, eat healthier, prevent skin cancer, and receive regular mammograms. Preventive Medicine, 41(2), 406–416.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Prochaska, J. J., Spring, B., & Nigg, C. R. (2008). Multiple health behavior change research: An introduction and overview. Preventive Medicine, 46(3), 181–188.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Puska, P. M., Puska, P. M. J., Barrueco, M., Roussos, C., Hider, A., & Hogue, S. (2005). The participation of health professionals in a smoking-cessation programme positively influences the smoking cessation advice given to patients. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 59(4), 447–452.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Quinlan, K. B., & McCaul, K. D. (2000). Matched and mismatched interventions with young adult smokers: Testing a stage theory. Health Psychology, 19(2), 165.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rahimi, B., Timpka, T., Vimarlund, V., Uppugunduri, S., & Svensson, M. (2009). Organization-wide adoption of computerized provider order entry systems: A study based on diffusion of innovations theory. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 9(1), 52.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Rakowski, W., Ehrich, B., Goldstein, M. G., Rimer, B. K., Pearlman, D. N., Clark, M. A., Velicer, W. F., & Woolverton III, H. (1998). Increasing mammography among women aged 40–74 by use of a stage-matched, tailored intervention. Preventive Medicine, 27(5 Pt 1), 748–756.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Renner, B., Kwon, S., Yang, B.-H., Paik, K.-C., Kim, S. H., Roh, S., Song, J., & Schwarzer, R. (2008). Social-cognitive predictors of dietary behaviors in South Korean men and women. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(1), 4–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Resnicow, K., & Vaughan, R. (2006). A chaotic view of behavior change: A quantum leap for health promotion. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3, 25.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Resnicow, K., DiIorio, C., Soet, J. E., Borrelli, B., Hecht, J., & Ernst, D. (2002). Motivational interviewing in health promotion: It sounds like something is changing. Health Psychology, 21(5), 444.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rigotti, N. A., Munafo, M. R., & Stead, L. F. (2008). Smoking cessation interventions for hospitalized smokers: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(18), 1950–1960.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Riper, H., Kramer, J., Smit, F., Conijn, B., Schippers, G., & Cuijpers, P. (2008). Web-based self-help for problem drinkers: A pragmatic randomized trial. Addiction, 103(2), 218.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rivis, A., & Sheeran, P. (2003). Descriptive norms as an additional predictor in the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analysis. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 22, 218–233.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, R. W. (1975). A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 91(1), 93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, R. W. (1983). Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. In J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Eds.), Social psychophysiology. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, R. W. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rohrbach, L. A., Grana, R., Sussman, S., & Valente, T. W. (2006). Type II translation: Transporting prevention interventions from research to real-world settings. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 29(3), 302–333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenstock, I. (1974). Historical origins of the Health Belief Model. Health Education Monographs, 2(4), 336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosseel, J. P., Hilberink, S. R., Jacobs, J. E., Maassen, I. M., Plasschaert, A. J. M., & Grol, R. P. T. M. (2010). Are oral health complaints related to smoking cessation intentions? Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 38(5), 470–478.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ruiter, R. A., Kessels, L. T., Jansma, B. M., & Brug, J. (2006). Increased attention for computer-tailored health communications: An event-related potential study. Health Psychology, 25(3), 300–306.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, D. R., Steadman, L., & Quine, L. (2006). An implementation intentions intervention to increase uptake of mammography. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32(2), 127–134.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Salpeter, S. R., Buckley, N. S., Ormiston, T. M., & Salpeter, E. E. (2006). Meta-analysis: Effect of long-acting beta-agonists on severe asthma exacerbations and asthma-related deaths. Annals of Internal Medicine, 144(12), 904–912.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sarafino, E. P. (1994). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sarkar, U., Karter, A. J., Liu, J. Y., Adler, N. E., Nguyen, R., López, A., & Schillinger, D. (2011). Social disparities in internet patient portal use in diabetes: Evidence that the digital divide extends beyond access. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 18(3), 318–321.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Say, R. E., & Thomson, R. (2003). The importance of patient preferences in treatment decisions – Challenges for doctors. BMJ, 327(7414), 542–545.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Schaalma, H., Kok, G., & Peters, L. (1993). Determinants of consistent condom use by adolescents: The impact of experience of sexual intercourse. Health Education Research, 8(2), 255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schoenmakers, T., Wiers, R. W., & Field, M. (2008). Effects of a low dose of alcohol on cognitive biases and craving in heavy drinkers. Psychopharmacology, 197(1), 169–178.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schwarzer, R. (Ed.). (1992). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwarzer, R. (2008a). Modeling health behavior change: The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). Available from: http://www.hapa-model.de/

  • Schwarzer, R. (2008b). Modeling health behavior change: How to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. Applied Psychology. An International Review, 57(1), 1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwarzer, R., Schüz, B., Ziegelmann, J. P., Lippke, S., Luszczynska, A., & Scholz, U. (2007). Adoption and maintenance of four health behaviors: Theory-guided longitudinal studies on dental flossing, seat belt use, dietary behavior, and physical activity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(2), 156.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schwarzer, R., Luszczynska, A., Ziegelmann, J. P., Scholz, U., & Lippke, S. (2008). Social-cognitive predictors of physical exercise adherence: Three longitudinal studies in rehabilitation. Health Psychology, 27(Suppl. 1), S54.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schwarzer, R., Lippke, S., & Luszczynska, A. (2011). Mechanisms of health behavior change in persons with chronic illness or disability: The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). Rehabilitation Psychology, 56(3), 161.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Segaar, D., Willemsen, M. C., Bolman, C., & De Vries, H. (2007a). Nurse adherence to a minimal-contact smoking cessation intervention on cardiac wards. Research in Nursing & Health, 30(4), 429–444.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Segaar, D., Bolman, C., Willemsen, M. C., & De Vries, H. (2007b). Identifying determinants of protocol adoption by midwives: A comprehensive approach. Health Education Research, 22(1), 14–26.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sheeran, P., & Orbell, S. (2000). Using implementation intentions to increase attendance for cervical cancer screening. Health Psychology, 19(3), 283–289.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sheeran, P., Webb, T. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2005). The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(1), 87–98.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sherif, M. (1935). A study of some social factors in perception. Archives of Psychology, 187.

    Google Scholar 

  • Simonds, S. K. (1978). Health education: Facing issues of policy, ethics, and social justice. Health Education Monographs, 6(Suppl. 1), 18–27.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Skår, S., Sniehotta, F. F., Molloy, G. J., Prestwich, A., & Araujo-Soares, V. (2011). Do brief online planning interventions increase physical activity amongst university students? A randomised controlled trial. Psychology & Health, 26(4), 399–417.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skinner, C. S., Sykes, R. K., Monsees, B. S., Andriole, D. A., Arfken, C. L., & Fisher, E. B. (1998). Learn, share, and live: Breast cancer education for older, urban minority women. Health Education & Behavior, 25(1), 60–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Slovic, P. (1987). Perception of risk. Science, 236(4799), 280–285.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Slovic, P., & Peters, E. (2006). Risk perception and affect. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(6), 322–325.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smeets, T., Brug, J., & de Vries, H. (2008). Effects of tailoring health messages on physical activity. Health Education Research, 23(3), 402–413.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smerecnik, C., Quaak, M., van Schayck, C. P., van Schooten, F. J., & de Vries, H. (2011). Are smokers interested in genetic testing for smoking addiction? A socio-cognitive approach. Psychology & Health, 26(8), 1099–1112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sniehotta, F. F. (2009). Towards a theory of intentional behaviour change: Plans, planning, and self-regulation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2), 261.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sniehotta, F. F., Scholz, U., Schwarzer, R., Fuhrmann, B., Kiwus, U., & Völler, H. (2005). Long-term effects of two psychological interventions on physical exercise and self-regulation following coronary rehabilitation. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12(4), 244–255.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sniehotta, F. F., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Action plans and coping plans for physical exercise: A longitudinal intervention study in cardiac rehabilitation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11(Pt 1), 23–37.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, L. B., Hamilton, M. A., Mitchell, E. W., Kiwanuka-Tondo, J., Fleming-Milici, F., & Proctor, D. (2004). A meta-analysis of the effect of mediated health communication campaigns on behavior change in the United States. Journal of Health Communication, 9(Suppl. 1), 71–96.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Soler, R. E., Leeks, K. D., Razi, S., Hopkins, D. P., Griffith, M., Aten, A., Chattopadhyay, S. K., Smith, S. C., Habarta, N., & Goetzel, R. Z. (2010). A systematic review of selected interventions for worksite health promotion. The assessment of health risks with feedback. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(2 Suppl), S237–S262.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stock, J., & Cervone, D. (1990). Proximal goal-setting and self-regulatory processes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(5), 483–498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(3), 220.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Strecher, V. J. (1999). Computer-tailored smoking cessation materials: A review and discussion. Patient Education and Counseling, 36(2), 107–117.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Strecher, V. J., & Rosenstock, I. M. (1997). The Health Belief Model. In A. Baum et al. (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strecher, V. J., McEvoy DeVellis, B., Becker, M. H., & Rosenstock, I. M. (1986). The role of self-efficacy in achieving health behavior change. Health Education Quarterly, 13(1), 73–92.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Strecher, V. J., Kreuter, M., Den Boer, D. J., Kobrin, S., Hospers, H. J., & Skinner, C. S. (1994). The effects of computer-tailored smoking cessation messages in family practice settings. The Journal of Family Practice, 39(3), 262–270.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Strecher, V. J., Shiffman, S., & West, R. (2005). Randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy. Addiction, 100(5), 682–688.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Strecher, V. J., McClure, J. B., Alexander, G. L., Chakraborty, B., Nair, V. N., Konkel, J. M., Greene, S. M., Collins, L. M., Carlier, C. C., & Wiese, C. J. (2008). Web-based smoking-cessation programs: Results of a randomized trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(5), 373–381.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Suissa, S., & Ernst, P. (2001). Inhaled corticosteroids: Impact on asthma morbidity and mortality. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 107(6), 937–944.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sutton, S. (2000). Interpreting cross-sectional data on stages of change. Psychology and Health, 15(2), 163–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Swinburn, B., Egger, G., & Raza, F. (1999). Dissecting obesogenic environments: The development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Preventive Medicine, 29(6 Pt 1), 563–570.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, S. E., Falke, R. L., Shoptaw, S. J., & Lichtman, R. R. (1986). Social support, support groups, and the cancer patient. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(5), 608–615.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Te Poel, F., Bolman, C., Reubsaet, A., & de Vries, H. (2009). Efficacy of a single computer-tailored e-mail for smoking cessation: Results after 6 months. Health Education Research, 24(6), 930–940.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, R. (2002). School-based programmes for preventing smoking. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD001293.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, R., & Perera, R. (2013). School-based programmes for preventing smoking. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD001293.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thurstone, L. L. (1931). Measurement of social attitudes. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 26, 249–269.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tichenor, P. J., Donohue, G. A., & Olien, C. N. (1970). Mass media flow and differential growth in knowledge. Public Opinion Quarterly, 34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tu, H. T., & Cohen, G. R. (2008). Striking jump in consumers seeking health care information. Tracking Report, 20, 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, J. C. (1991). Social influence. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyler-Smith, K. (2006). Early attrition among first time eLearners: A review of factors that contribute to drop-out, withdrawal and non-completion rates of adult learners undertaking eLearning programmes. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 2, 73–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Uchino, B. N. (2006). Social support and health: A review of physiological processes potentially underlying links to disease outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(4), 377.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • USDHHS. (1980). Promoting health/preventing disease: Objectives for the nation. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • USDHHS. (1990). The health benefits of smoking cessation. A report of the Surgeon General’s Office on Smoking and Health. Rockville: U.S. Govt. Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Valente, T. W. (2002). Evaluating health promotion programs. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • van der Velde, F. W., Hooykaas, C., & van der Pligt, J. (1996). Conditional versus unconditional risk estimates in models of AIDS-related risk behaviour. Psychology & Health, 12(1), 87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Keulen, H. M., Mesters, I., Ausems, M., Van Breukelen, G., Campbell, M., Resnicow, K., Brug, J., & De Vries, H. (2011). Tailored print communication and telephone motivational interviewing are equally successful in improving multiple lifestyle behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 41(1), 104–118.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van Osch, L., Reubsaet, A., Lechner, L., & de Vries, H. (2008a). The formation of specific action plans can enhance sun protection behavior in motivated parents. Preventive Medicine, 47(1), 127–132.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van Osch, L., Reubsaet, A., Lechner, L., Candel, M., Mercken, L., & De Vries, H. (2008b). Predicting parental sunscreen use: Disentangling the role of action planning in the intention-behavior relationship. Psychology and Health, 23(7), 829–846.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van Osch, L., Lechner, L., Reubsaet, A., & De Vries, H. (2010). From theory to practice: An explorative study into the instrumentality and specificity of implementation intentions. Psychology & Health, 25(3), 351–364.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Stralen, M. M., Kok, G., de Vries, H., Mudde, A. N., Bolman, C., & Lechner, L. (2008). The Active plus protocol: Systematic development of two theory-and evidence-based tailored physical activity interventions for the over-fifties. BMC Public Health, 8(1), 399.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Vartiainen, E., Puska, P., Koskela, K., Nissinen, A., & Toumilehto, J. (1986). Ten-year results of a community-based anti-smoking program (as part of the North Karelia Project in Finland). Health Education Research, 1(3), 175–184.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vassallo, M., Saba, A., Arvola, A., Dean, M., Messina, F., Winkelmann, M., Claupein, E., Lähteenmäki, L., & Shepherd, R. (2009). Willingness to use functional breads. Applying the Health Belief Model across four European countries. Appetite, 52(2), 452.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Velicer, W. F., Diclemente, C. C., Rossi, J. S., & Prochaska, J. O. (1990). Relapse situations and self-efficacy: An integrative model. Addictive Behaviors, 15(3), 271–283.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Velicer, W. F., Prochaska, J. O., Bellis, J. M., DiClemente, C. C., Rossi, J. S., Fava, J. L., & Steiger, J. H. (1993). An expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 18(3), 269–290.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Velicer, W. F., Prochaska, J. O., & Redding, C. A. (2006). Tailored communications for smoking cessation: Past successes and future directions. Drug and Alcohol Review, 25(1), 49–57.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vernon, S. W. (1999). Risk perception and risk communication for cancer screening behaviors: A review. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs, 25, 101–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Verplanken, B., & Faes, S. (1999). Good intentions, bad habits, and effects of forming implementation intentions on healthy eating. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29(5-6), 591.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vries, H. D., & Mudde, A. N. (1998). Predicting stage transitions for smoking cessation applying the attitude-social influence-efficacy model. Psychology and Health, 13(2), 369–385.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner, T. H., Bundorf, M. K., Singer, S. J., & Baker, L. C. (2005). Free internet access, the digital divide, and health information. Medical Care, 43(4), 415–420.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 249–268.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Webb, T. L., Joseph, J., Yardley, L., & Michie, S. (2010). Using the internet to promote health behavior change: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of behavior change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 12(1), e4.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Weinstein, N. D. (1988). The precaution adoption process. Health Psychology, 7(4), 355–386.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weinstein, N. D., & Sandman, P. M. (1992). A model of the precaution adoption process: Evidence from home radon testing. Health Psychology, 11(3), 170–180.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weinstein, N. D., Lyon, J. E., Sandman, P. M., & Cuite, C. L. (1998). Experimental evidence for stages of health behavior change: The precaution adoption process model applied to home radon testing. Health Psychology, 17(5), 445.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • WHO. (1978). Declaration of Alma-Ata. International conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6–12 September. Geneva: WHO.

    Google Scholar 

  • WHO. (1985). Prerequisites for health. In WHO Regional Office of Europe (Ed.), Targets for all: Targets in support of the European regional strategy for health for all. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office of Europe.

    Google Scholar 

  • WHO. (1986). Ottawa charter of health promotion. In Health promotion I, Ottawa.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy people 2010: Understanding and improving health (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • WHO. (2013). In J. M. Pelikan, I. Kickbusch, F. Apfel, & A. D. Tsouros (Eds.), Health literacy; solid facts.

    Google Scholar 

  • WHO, [WHO definition of Health]. (1946). Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19–22 June 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wielm, A. G. (2004). Digital Nation: Towards an inclusive information society (pp. 133–134). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiers, R. W., Bartholow, B. D., van den Wildenberg, E., Thush, C., Engels, R. C. M. E., Sher, K. J., Grenard, J., Ames, S. L., & Stacy, A. W. (2007). Automatic and controlled processes and the development of addictive behaviors in adolescents: A review and a model. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 86(2), 263–283.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wiers, R. W., Rinck, M., Kordts, R., Houben, K., & Strack, F. (2009). Retraining automatic action-tendencies to approach alcohol in hazardous drinkers. Addiction, 105(2), 279–287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilde, M. H., & Garvin, S. (2007). A concept analysis of self-monitoring. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57(3), 339–350.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, M. G., Holman, P. B., & Hammock, A. (1996). A comprehensive review of the effects of worksite health promotion on health-related outcomes. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10(6), 429–435.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Winett, L. B., & Wallack, L. (1996). Advancing public health goals through the mass media. Journal of Health Communication, 1(2), 173–196.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ziegelmann, J. P., Lippke, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Adoption and maintenance of physical activity: Planning interventions in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Psychology & Health, 21(2), 145–163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ziegelmann, J. P., Luszczynska, A., Lippke, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Are goal intentions or implementation intentions better predictors of health behavior? A longitudinal study in orthopedic rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52(1), 97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hein de Vries .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer Science+Business Media LLC

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

de Vries, H., Kremers, S.P.J., Lippke, S. (2018). Health Education and Health Promotion: Key Concepts and Exemplary Evidence to Support Them. In: Fisher, E., et al. Principles and Concepts of Behavioral Medicine. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-93826-4_17

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics