Semiconductor characterization techniques are used in order to gain knowledge on the physical properties of a semiconductor crystal. The process is similar to decoding the DNA sequence of a living organism as it involves understanding the nanoscale structure of the crystal, i.e. its atoms, electrons, their structures and their interactions with the surrounding environment. The knowledge gained from the characterization process is essential in determining whether the semiconductor crystal probed is suitable for a particular device component with certain functionalities.
Semiconductor characterization is generally initiated immediately after the synthesis of a crystal. We can distinguish three types of characterization techniques: structural, optical and electrical. In this Chapter, we will briefly review the most common of these semiconductor characterization techniques. The discussion and examples will be primarily directed toward semiconductor thin films, although most of the same techniques can be readily used for bulk crystals as well.
- Auger Electron Spectroscopy
- Michelson Interferometer
- Hall Effect Measurement
- Optical Path Difference
- Semiconductor Thin Film
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