Image-Guided Spinal Navigation: Principles and Clinical Applications

  • Iain H. KalfasEmail author

Image-guided spinal navigation is a computer-based surgical technology that was developed to improve the intraoperative orientation to the unexposed anatomy during complex spinal procedures [1, 2]. It evolved from the principles of stereotaxy, which neurosurgeons have used for several decades to help localize intracranial lesions. Stereotaxy is defined as the localization of a specific point in space using three-dimensional coordinates. The application of stereotaxy to intracranial surgery initially involved the use of an external frame attached to the patient’s head. However, the evolution of computer-based technologies has eliminated the need for this frame and has allowed for the expansion of stereotactic technology into other surgical fields, in particular, spinal surgery.


Pedicle Screw Screw Placement Screw Insertion Drill Guide Pilot Hole 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

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