Facet Joint and Epidural Injections

  • Mark S. WallaceEmail author
  • Tobias Moeller-Bertram

The facet or zygopophyseal joints are true diarthrodial joints with a synovial membrane rich in neuropeptide-containing free nerve endings [1]. They are formed by the articulation of the inferior articular process of the vertebra above with the superior articular process of the vertebra above.


Facet Joint Epidural Space Transverse Process Ligamentum Flavum Medial Branch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Edgar MA, Ghadiaily JA. Innervation of the lumbar spine. Clin Orthop. 1976;115:35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bogduk N. The clinical anatomy of the cervical dorsal rami. Spine. 1982;7:319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chua WH, Bogduk N. The surgical anatomy of thoracic facet denervation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1995;136(3–4):140–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bogduk N. The innervation of the lumbar spine. Spine. 1983;8:286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bogduk N, Wilson AS, Tynan W. The human lumbar dorsal rami. J Anat. 1982;134:383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lewin T, Moffet B, Viidik A. The morphology of the lumbar synovial intervertebral joints. Acat Morphol Neerl Scand. 1962;4:299.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bogduk N. The lumbar mamillo-accessory ligament: its anatomical and neurosurgical significance. Spine. 1981;6:162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barnsley L, Bogduk N. Medial branch blocks are specific for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. Reg Anesth. 1993;18:343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Derby R, Bogduk N, Schwarzer AC. Precision percutaneous blocking procedure for localizing spinal pain. Part 1: The posterior lumbar compartment. Pain Digest. 1993;3:89.Google Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. 1.
    Fenton DS, Czervionke LF. Image-Guided Spine Intervention. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Waldman SD. Atlas of Interventional Pain Management. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.; 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Raj P, Lou L, Erdine S, Staats PS. Radiographic Imaging for Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cousins MJ, Bridenbaugh PO. Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Management of Pain. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co.; 1988.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pauza K, Bogduk N. Lumbar transforaminal injection of corticosteroids. ISIS Sci Newsl. 2002;4:4–20.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aprill C, Rogers K. Cervical transforaminal injection of corticosteroids. ISIS Sci Newsl. 2002;4:21–32.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, Center for Pain MedicineUniversity of California-San Diego Medical CenterLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology, University of California-San DiegoVA San Diego Healthcare SystemsLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations